Comparative Study of Education System of Philippines Assignment

Comparative Study of Education System of Philippines Assignment Words: 3437

Techniques of instruction often reflect the attitudes of society, . E. , authoritarian groups typically sponsor dogmatic methods, while democratic systems may emphasize freedom of thought. Education in England is the responsibility of the Secretary of State for Children, Schools and Families and the Secretary of State for Innovation, Universities and Skills, though the day to day administration and funding of state schools is the responsibility of Local Authorities (previously named Local Education Authorities). 191] universal state education in England and Wales was introduced for primary level in 1870 and secondary level in 1900. 1192] Education is mandatory from ages five to sixteen (1 5 if born in late July or August). The majority of children are educated in state-sector schools, only a small proportion of which select on the grounds of academic ability. Despite a fall in actual numbers, the proportion of children in England attending private schools has risen to over 7%. [193] Just over half of students at the leading universities of Cambridge and Oxford had attended state schools. 1 94] State schools which are allowed to select pupils according to intelligence and academic ability can achieve comparable results to the most selective private schools: out of the top ten performing schools in terms of GEESE results in 2006 two were state-run grammar schools. England has some of the top universities in the world; University of Cambridge, University of Oxford, Imperial College London and University College London are ranked in the global top 10 in the 2008 THESE – SQ World University Rankings. 195] Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMES) rated pupils in England 7th in the world for Math, and 6th for Science. The results put England’s pupils ahead of other European countries, including Germany and Scandinavian countries. [1 96] Education in the Philippines is patterned after the American system, with English as the medium of instruction. Schools are classified into public (government) or private (non-government).

The general pattern of formal education follows four stages: Pre-primary level (nursery and kindergarten) offered in most private schools; six years of primary education, followed by four years of secondary education. College education usually takes four, sometimes five and in some cases as in medical and law schools, as long as eight years. Graduate schooling is an additional two or more years. Classes in Philippine schools start in June and end in March. Colleges and universities follow the semesters calendar from June-October and November-March.

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There are a number of foreign schools with study programs similar to those of the mother country. Chapter II: Importance of the study This comparative study of educational system will help the readers specially the educational managers know and understand what are the problems and current situation of the Philippines that affects our education. It will let them also know what part of education system of England that we can imitate and establish in our system of education to produce globally competitive dents.

CHAPTER Ill: presentation and Interpretation ; Geographical Setting England accounts for just over half of the total area of the XII, covering 130,41 0 square kilometers (50,350 sq mi). Most of the country consists of constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy. , with mountainous terrain north-west of the Tees-Exe line including the Cambrian Mountains of the Lake District, the Pennies and limestone hills of the Peak District, Oxymora and Darkroom.

The main rivers and estuaries are the Thames, Severe and the Hummer. England’s highest mountain is Safely Pike, which is in the Lake District 978 meters (3,209 Ft). England has a number of large towns and cities, including six of the top 50 Larger Urban Zones in the European Union. Philippines constitutes an archipelago of 7,107 islands with a total land area of approximately 300,000 square kilometers (1 1 6,000 square miles). It is located between 1160 40′, and 1260 34′ E. Longitude and 40 40′ and 210 10′ N. Attitude and borders the Philippine Sea on the east, the South China Sea on the west, and the Celebes Sea on the south. The island of Borneo is located a few hundred kilometers southwest and Taiwan is located directly to the Roth. The Mollusks and Salaries are located to the south-southwest and Paula is located to the east of the islands. The Philippines is divided into three island groups: Luzon (Regions to V, NCR and CAR), Visas (VI to VIII), and Mindanao (IX to XIII and ARM).

The port of Manila, on Luzon, is the capital city and the second largest city after Guenon City ; Type of Government As part of the United Kingdom the basic political system in England is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy. There has not been a Government of England since 1 707, when the Acts of Union 1707, putting into effect the terms of the Treaty of Union, joined the England and Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain-[54] Before the union England was ruled by its monarch and the Parliament of England.

Today England is governed directly by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, although other countries of the United Kingdom have devolved governments-[61] In the House of Commons which is the lower house of the British Parliament based at the Palace of Westminster, there are 529 Members of Parliament for constituencies in England, out of the 646 total Philippines has a presidential, unitary form of government (with some modification, there is one autonomous region largely free from the national government), where the President functions as both head of state and head of government and is commander-in-chief of the armed forces.

The president is elected by popular vote to a single six-year term, during which time she or he appoints and presides over the cabinet. [ ; Objectives of education in England The National Curriculum was introduced into England, Wales and Northern Ireland as a nationwide curriculum for primary and secondary state schools following the Education Reform Act 1988. Notwithstanding its name, it does not apply to Independent Schools, which by definition are free to set their own curriculum, but it ensures that state schools of all Local Education Authorities have a common curriculum.

The Education Reform Act 1 988 requires that all state students be taught a Basic Curriculum of Religious Education and the National Curriculum. The purpose of the National Curriculum was to standardize the content taught across schools in order to enable assessment, which in turn enabled the compilation of league tables detailing the assessment statistics for each school.

These league tables, gather with the provision to parents of some degree of choice in assignment of the school for their child (also legislated in the same act) were intended to encourage a ‘free market’ by allowing parents to choose schools based on their measured ability to teach the National Curriculum. Principal aims and purposes There are two principal aims and four main purposes set out in the National Curriculum documentation: ; Aim 1: The school curriculum should aim to provide opportunities for all pupils to learn and to achieve. Aim 2: The school curriculum should aim to promote pupils’ spiritual, moral, social and ultra development and prepare all pupils for the opportunities, responsibilities and experiences of life. ; Purpose 1: To establish an entitlement ; purpose 2: To establish standards ; Purpose 3: To promote continuity and coherence ; Purpose 4: To promote public understanding Education in England is overseen by the Department for Children, Schools and Families and the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills.

At a local level the local authorities take responsibility for implementing policy for public education and state schools. Full-time education is compulsory for all children aged between 5 and 16 (inclusive). Students may then continue their secondary studies for a further novo years (sixth form), leading most typically to an A level qualification, although other qualifications and courses exist, including GNP and the International Baccalaureate. The leaving age for compulsory education was raised to 18 by the Education and Skills Act 2008.

The change will take effect in 201 3 for 1 7 year olds and 2015 for 18 year olds. [8] State-provided schools are free of charge to students, and there is also a tradition Of independent schooling, but parents may choose to educate their children by any suitable means. Higher education typically begins with a 3-year Bachelor’s Degree. Postgraduate degrees include Master’s Degrees, either taught or by research, and Doctor of Philosophy, a research degree that usually takes at least 3 years.

Universities require a Royal charter in order to issue degrees, and all but one are financed by the state with a low level of fees for students. The state-funded school system State-run schools and colleges are financed through national taxation, and take pupils free of charge between the ages of 3 and 18. The schools may levy charges for activities such as swimming, theatre visits and field trips, provided he charges are voluntary’, thus ensuring that those who cannot afford to pay are allowed to participate in such events. Approximately 93% of English schoolchildren attend such schools.

A significant minority of state-funded schools are faith schools, which are attached to religious groups, most often the Church of England or the Roman Catholic Church. There are also a small number of state-funded boarding schools, which typically charge for board but not tuition. Nearly 90% of state-funded secondary schools are specialist schools, receiving extra funding to develop one or more subjects in which the school specialists. Curriculum All maintained schools in England are required to follow the National Curriculum, which is made up of twelve subjects.

The core subjects-?English, Mathematics and Science-?are compulsory for all students aged 5 to 16. The other foundation subjects are compulsory at one or more Key Stages: ; Art & Design ; Citizenship ; Design & Technology ; Geography ; History ; Information & Communication Technology ; Modern Foreign Languages ; Music ; Physical Education In addition, other statutory subjects are not covered by the National Curriculum, including Religious Education in all year groups, and Career education, Sex education and Work-related learning at secondary age.

GRADING SYSTEM Usual grading system in secondary school Full Description: Alphabetical system A to E. A: excellent/outstanding; B: above average; C: average; D: below average; E: failing. Highest on scale: A Pass/fail level: C/D Lowest on scale: E Main grading system used by higher education institutions above average; C: average; D: below average; E: fail. Highest on scale: A Pass/fail level: DIE Primary and secondary education The school year begins usually on the 1st of September (sometimes the 2nd or 3rd if the 1st falls on a weekend).

Education is compulsory for all children from the term after their fifth birthday to the last Friday in June of the school year in which they turn 16. This will be raised in 2013 to the year in which they turn 17 and in 2015 to the year in which they turn 18. Secondary schools by intake Weathers High School, a typical former secondary modern school in Weathers, West Yorkshire English secondary schools are mostly comprehensive, except in a few areas that retain a form of the previous selective system (the Tripartite System), with students selected for grammar school by the Entrance Exam.

There are also a number of isolated fully elective grammar schools, and a few dozen partially selective schools. Specialist schools may also select up to 10% of their intake for aptitude in the specialist, though relatively few of them have taken up this option. Also, intakes of comprehensive schools can vary widely, especially in urban areas with several schools. Sir Peter Newsman, Chief Schools Adjudicator 1999-2002, has argued that English schools can be divided into 8 types (with some overlap) based on the ability range of their intake: 1. Super-selective”: almost all of the intake from the top 10%. These are the few highly selective rammer schools that dominate school performance tables. 2. “Selective”: almost all of the intake from the top 25%. These include grammar schools in areas where the Tripartite system survives. 3. “Comprehensive (plus)”: admit children of all abilities, but concentrated in the top 50%. These include partially selective schools and a few high-status faith schools in areas without selection. 4. Comprehensive: intake with an bail itty distribution match ins the population.

These schools are most common in rural areas and small towns with no nearby selection, but a few occur in urban areas. 5. “Comprehensive minus)”: admit children Of all abilities, but with few in the top 25%. These include comprehensive schools with nearby selective schools “skimming” the intake. 6. Secondary modern: hardly any of the intake in the top 25%, but an even distribution of the rest. These include non-selective schools in areas where the Tripartite system survives. 7. “Secondary modern (minus)”: no pupils in the top 25% and 10-15% in the next 25%.

These schools are most common in urban areas where alternatives of types 1-5 are available. 8. “Sub-secondary modern”: intake heavily weighted toward the low end of the ability range. This ranking is reflected in performance tables, and thus the schools’ attractiveness to parents. Independent schools Approximately 7% of English schoolchildren attend privately run independent schools. (Public Schools) Education at independent schools is usually chargeable. Such schools, some of which are boarding schools, cover primary and secondary education and charge between EYE to E30000 per year.

Some schools offer scholarships for those with particular skills or aptitudes or bursaries to allow less well-off students to attend. The Independent school system usually teaches separate sciences (Biology, Chemistry and Physics)and sakes the highest 50% of pupils in the entrance exam (the 1 SST form exam) most have a prep dept or a pre prep dept of a kindergarten or a sixth form or a senior school. Some may be single sex. Usually Public schools age between 2. 5/3 and 11 transferring to 11 – 18. Some cover 2. 5 Most take 7 – 18. Education otherwise than by schooling – 16 but this is unusual.

The Education Act requires parents to ensure their children are educated either by attending school or otherwise. Small but increasing numbers of parents are choosing the otherwise option. This style of education is often referred to as Elective Home Education. The education can take many different forms ranging from homecomings where a school style curriculum is followed at home to unclogging where any semblance of structure in the educational provision is abandoned. Parents do not need permission to educate their own children.

There is no requirement to follow the National Curriculum or to give formal lessons. Parents do not need to be qualified teachers, or to follow school hours or terms. Parents who choose to educate their children otherwise than at school have to finance the education provision themselves. Educational Ladder in Basic Education of England I Age on 1st Septet I Year 1 13 I Nursery I Curriculum stage I Foundation Stage Reception 51 million I Schools I Nursery school 92 Population million Presidential, Unitary form of government democracy.

Type of Constitutional monarchy mixed market economy Mountainous terrain I I Government Newly industrialized I Country an archipelago I of 7, 107 islands land I Parliamentary Economy I Geographical setting I Climate temperate maritime climate I and is usually I hot and humid has a tropical climate Anglicanism and Roman Catholic instruction I Educational Ladder English 6-7-3 Religion I I Medium of I Perennial issues Medium of instruction | 1 . Higher educational I Funding in England I Additional 2 years in basic 2. Parent’s guidance 3. Overcrowding, within subjects and across the curriculum as a whole. 14. Problems in teacher Education | 5. Culture informality 6. Confusion over A-level standard 14. September to June Qualified Teachers for I Education I School year I Lack of facilities I Subject/curriculum content Gender issue I Drop out rate Low Quality of Teachers I I Objectives of education I Academic year I Classes from: I June to March I Has Qualified teacher LET(Licenser Examination for Teachers) I I Basic education status (SETS) Insights and Recommendations

Because England, as part of United Kingdom, is a developed country, with the world’s sixth largest economy and the world’s first industrialized country, they have enough funds to establish a good program in their education. I don t question on how they handle their education system because it is very good and appropriate to their country. And if you’re going to ask me, their system is a good example for the Philippines and if applied to our country, we can also attain what and where their education now. But the big problem is, does the Government have enough funds to establish such programs and facilities in every school in our country?

I don’t think so. In my own opinion, I think, our education system is good enough to produce a competitive students. And I think that the true problem is not the system but in the people itself, because strongly believe that our failure to develop discipline, is failure of a perfect system. Filipinos are very much aware of there rights, but fail to know their obligation that’s why there is no balance in education as well as the government. And maybe, that is the reason why Filipinos are is in the altered state of consciousness.

Levels of education in the Philippines Level/Grade Preschool Typical age I I Various optional programs Under 6 13-4 N rusher I Preparatory I Elementary School Grade | 6-7 7-8 1 3rd Grade 14th Grade 19-10 110-11 I Sigh school 1st year high school (Freshman) 1 2nd year high school (Sophomore) 1 3rd year high school (Junior) 14th year high school (Senior) I Post-secondary education Tertiary education (College or University) years, I I Kinder | 5-6 2nd Grade | 8-9 15th 1 16th Grade 112-13 113-14 114-15 115-16 Ages vary (usually four referred to as Freshman, Seen ROR years) Ages vary I Adult education I Sophomore, Junior and I I Vocational education I Graduate education Principles and general objectives of education

In the Philippines the education system aims to: ; Provide a broad general education that will assist each individual in society to attain his/ her potential as a human being and enhance the range and quality of the individual and the group; ; Help the individual participate in the basic functions of society and acquire the essential educational foundation for his/her development into a productive and versatile citizen; Train the nation’s manpower in the middle-level skills required for national development; ; Develop the high-level professions that will provide leadership for the nation, advance knowledge through research, and apply ewe knowledge for improving the quality of human life; Respond effectively to changing needs and conditions through a system of educational planning and evaluation. Current educational priorities and concerns The growing awareness of the benefits of education, the constitutional provision (a new constitution was adopted in 1 987) for free and compulsory elementary education, the demand for education relevance and responsiveness to changing societal needs and the alarming rate of increase in the country’s population have contributed to the problem of providing education for all, a problem which becomes more serious each year.

The Department of Education, Culture and Sports (now the Department of Education, Depend) has attempted to implement educational reforms, programmed and projects to address the key issues of access and quality of basic education, relevance and efficiency of the education system. However, many problems are besetting education in the Philippines. Among the school- related causes are the unqualified and poorly trained teachers, inadequate facilities and equipment, and lack of instructional materials (textbooks and teacher’s manuals). Non-school factors include poverty, low educational attainment and illiteracy of parents, and poor health and nutrition.

In recent years, the Depend has pursued several development programmed and projects through government funding and overseas economic co- operation both multilateral and bilateral. The strategies to improve education include overall review of elementary and secondary education, universal access to and quality of education (notably by emphasizing teaching of English, science, technology and mathematics), provision of alternative delivery schemes (such as multistage teaching, mobile teaching, and instructional management by parents, community and teachers in disaster areas), management training for principals and school administrators, development of research, improvement of school libraries and teachers’ welfare.

Technical and vocational education was also revised in an effort to cope with rapid technological advancements and to provide young people with more meaningful preparation for their future employment. The strategies include curriculum development, improvement of pre- and in- service education of teachers in both public and private schools, updated instructional materials in various fields, and upgrading of equipment for both public and private institutions. At the higher education level, the trainees include improving access of the poor and disadvantaged, improving quality–notably by focusing on pre-service and in-service training of liberalizing policies for private schools, rationalizing state colleges teachers- and universities (Sucks), and strengthening linkages with government professional boards for evaluation.

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