Academic Integrity in a cultural context: Human civilization is cumulative , it started from nothing, to stone age, to iron age, etc. , for example, I am using now my PC to write this paper, this PC passed through long way to end to the shape it is now, and will continue developing , this is the story of human civilization . According to ( Assignee, Beamer. From 2001 , ongoing): Civilization requires at least a rudimentary civil service. In the organization of a civil service, a system of writing is an almost indispensable aid, and no civilization will thrive without writing.
But the placement of writing greatly enhances civilization. And with a script comes history. We started learning our words and knowledge , from our parents , relatives, teachers, friends and the community we lived and are living in, in addition to books , internet and our experience in this beautiful life we -interactively- still learning . We have to admit that almost all Of our words , and most of our knowledge are acquired from our community , and the cumulative human resources. Academic integrity in the middle east cultural contraindicating to McCabe, et al(2008, volume 49,issues,up 451-467)
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Research , Little work has been done on academic dishonesty in the Middle East. This research investigates the nature of the relationship between contextual factors and academic dishonesty using a sample from three private universities in Lebanon, and compares the results to a sample from seven large universities in the US. Using the basic model of McCabe et al. (Research in Higher Education 2002), they found that : * Perception of peers’ behavior , has significant role in students’ decision concerning academic integrity. Norms of the collectivist society ,where middle seats people raised, (Collectivism is a social psychological term that elates to the manner in which humans identify themselves and prioritize their goals. – Collectivism focuses on the priorities of the group and not the individual. – In a collectivist society, people identify themselves with the goals of the group much more so than the goals of individuals. – Collectivism also focuses on things such as fitting into the group, behaving in ways that are line with social norms, group solidarity, and gaining a sense of identity from being part of the group.
America is a more individualistic country (we do value individualism) whereas many Asian countries place a greater value on electives. Http://www/. Allowedly. Com/glossary/ definition-pH PPTP , In additions to these norms which can be considered as other factors affecting attitude towards academic integrity, In the way that individual underestimates the value of citing the work done by other individual there are many other factors, like: Language difficulties (for non native speakers) , regulation of the party requiring the research , etc.
As per JIM LEE (2009), One study in one university in the United Arab Emirates showed that there was a growing concern that student cheating was a significant problem. And showed that: 1- A significant percentage of students did not believe that any of the following actions were considered to be serious: – cheating – working with others when asked for individual work, – getting questions/answers from someone who has already taken a test, – receiving unauthorized help on an assignment, – copying another student’s homework, copying another student on a test, or helping someone else cheat on a test. – There might be strong cultural influences that affect student behavior -Notably: -Some Arab societies have a strong tradition of helping one another. In particular, there is a strong loyalty to the collective group, such that all members are expected to help another member of the community. 3- To address the issue, the university adopted 3. 1 An honor code, analogous to those that exist at many American universities, 3. : Built the code around the ideals associated with the founder of the university -?a revered national figure. The university has subsequently had great success through this approach in which AY expectations were clarified through a culturally relevant mentor. Without saying , this new era , that is characterized – among other heartsickness- by the boom of globalization and information technology , we need strict regulations and governing rules to the Academic integrity , particularly , Citation and referencing . Live that citation and referencing are very important for the following reasons * Gratefulness to the originator * It gives more information( for example the statement of “my friend is strong’ will not have the same meaning if it is cited from my son writing, or from the writing of a world class champion in wrestling) * It enhances self- esteem * It will be of value for generations to come , for tracing the history f academic works In my organization ,frankly speaking, we just start adopting the regulations of citing and referencing when writing reports for consultants and clients, especially when submitting proposals for risk assessment in some dangerous activities like deep excavation in mud soil.