Environmental, social, political, and many other learner-external factors Interact in complex ways to determine learning outcomes. Moreover, the way learners observe the world has a great Influence over their educational achievements. Studies have shown that their sense of personal control over the educational process Is one of the most significant factors in arousing and maintaining individuals’ interest and involvement in learning activities.
This sense of personal control is known as Locus of control (LOC). Anhydrous, 2012, p. 123) LoC indicates how a person believes about control over life events; LoC refers to whether individuals relate their success or failure to their own behavior. Rooter proposed a continuum for LoC with Externalities and internalizes at the two opposing extremes. ‘Internalizes’ feel personally responsible for everything that happens to them In their lives whereas ‘Externalities’ believe that factors beyond their control determine what would happen In their lives. Anhydrous, 2012, p. 124) Rooter’s (1966) social learning theory locus of control construct suggested that enrolling laws of learning as illustrated above Is a problematic procedure because the effect of rewards depends on how the person perceives a causal relationship between his or her behavior and the reward. If the person perceives a reward as contingent upon his or her own effort or ability (biz. , internal locus of control),then the occurrence of a reward will strengthen the likelihood of that behavior recurring.
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If he or she sees a reward as not contingent upon ability or effort, that is, as a result of luck, chance, fate, or powers beyond personal control (biz. , external locus of control), hen the preceding behavior is less likely to be strengthened by the presence of a reward (Rooter, 1966). In general, Rooter suggested that Individuals with an Internal locus of control would place greater value on contingent achievement-related rewards. Www, 2008,) Trusty and McCann (1995) suggested that under contingent reward conditions, subjects with an internal locus of control (I. E. , internals) desired more control over the procedures and types of tasks and performed better than did subjects with an external locus of control (I. E. , externals), whereas subjects with an external locus of intro desired more control over the types of tasks and performed better than did those with internal locus of control under incontinent reward conditions.
Teachers have been seen as critical to the reform of the education sector and teacher development has been given high priority in the asses (Miller, 1999). Many teachers, administrators and policy-makers have been guided by the results of research and evaluation studies that suggested, according to Miller (1999, p. 63), that “teachers’ abilities, teachers’ knowledge of subject matter and teaching methods and teaching experience, along with small class sizes and the positive Influences of small schools, are critical elements in successful student learning”. Ferguson, 1991: Ferguson & underway, Jamaica and other Caribbean countries had to deal with the growing problems associated with teachers’ career decision-making of which the protracted problem of teacher attrition is an outcome; their teaching plans are of enormous interest in this complex process. Within the context of teaching, for example, an outcome expectation is illustrated by the teacher who believes that skillful instruction can offset the effects of an impoverished home environment.
Here, efficacy is expressed not for oneself but, rather, for an abstract collective of teachers–the “normative teacher,” using the language of Dunham and Michael (1981, p. 41). An efficacy expectation, in contrast, would be reflected by the teacher’s confidence that he or she personally is capable of such instruction, that the individual possesses personal agency with respect to the task of pedagogy. Smile (1988), on the basis of a path analysis, reported that the proportion of low-achieving students in a teacher’s classroom had a negative direct effect on personal efficacy.
Smile also found that interactions with one’s colleagues about instructional matters carried a positive indirect effect on personal efficacy through the intervening variable certainty of practice. And in their study of teacher efficacy and school climate, How and Wolff (Bibb) found that school-level measures of academic emphasis, institutional integrity, and principals influence each correlated with either personal or general efficacy. Among special education resource-room teachers, personal efficacy was sass coated with the perceived utility of instructional supervision (Colloidal & Bred ton, 1991).
Teachers’ locus of control has influenced teachers’ plans to teach or leave the profession (Ferrier, 1987; Rose & Midway, 1981). Ferrier (1987) also indicated that “motivation is as important as professional skills” Teachers’ self-efficacy has been defined as the belief of an individual’s ability to teach and motivate students (Gaston & Webb, 1986; Bandeau, 1991, 1997). Research studies show a strong a relationship between a teacher’s sense of efficacy and student achievement as well as teacher retention (Bray-Clark & Bates, 2003; Hillman, 1986; Floors, Desman-Operetta, & Statement, 2004; Attachments-Moran, How & How, 1998).
If teachers feel that students will follow their instructions or if they develop good rapport with their students, they may be encouraged to pursue teaching as a career. However, teachers may not be so enthusiastic about the profession if they feel frustrated in having to monitor pupil behavior, to deal with a great deal of discipline problems in the classroom, or to teach students who are poorly motivated. Research show that internal locus of controlled individuals, compared to external locus of controlled ones, spend rather more time on intellectual and academic activities and their success at school is higher.
Internal locus of controlled individuals represent individuals that resist negative off sects on a larger scale, that reacts strongly when their personal freedom is limited, that have an independent personality, and that are impulsive and entrepreneurial (Ye$library, 2004; Ye$library, 1990). Statement of the problem This study is designed to check the control of teachers’ on students in public and private schools. Objectives of the study The objectives of the study are to: difference between male and female teaching on students’ achievements. Check the effect of rural and urban teachers’ on students’ success and failure.
Research questions What is teacher’s locus of control? How teaching methodologies effect on students’ performance? How teachers’ can control their class regarding curricular and co-curricular activities? Significance of the study This study will be helpful to check the teachers’ control over their class. Operational definition of the study The operational definition of the study is to check the teacher’s external and internal perception about their students’ success and failure regarding teaching methodologies, classroom environment and students’ achievements inside the class.
Delimitation’s of the study The study comprised of public and private schools of Punjab. Ethical consideration The researcher takes the permission letter from the institute for data collection and make sure that no respondent has problem with the data or Data collection process. All data in the study will anonymous, participation will voluntary and no separate data will collect on individuals. Participants will informed that confidentiality will assured and that they have the right to withdraw from the study at any point.
Chapter # 3 Methodology Nature of the study The study was quantitative in nature. Population of the study The population of the study was the male and female teachers of public and private schools of Punjab. Data collection The researcher collected data through questionnaires from teachers of public and private schools of Punjab personally. Participants The researcher used the convenient sampling technique to collect data from the public and private schools of Punjab. The study was conducted through a survey.
The private and public in service teachers were selected in this study. Approximately 167 questionnaires were collected from in service teachers. There were total 167 searchers, 67 male and 100 female most of the teachers were from arts group which were 116 and science teachers were 51 in numbers. The majority of the in service teachers were having the age group of 20 to 30 years old, 40 to 50 years of age group were at the second number while the remaining two groups were at the least level.
The number of public schools was 95 and private schools were 72. The urban number of teachers 144 and rural 23 teachers. Measures control of teachers’ on students in public and private schools. The close ended questionnaires were used to explore the teachers’ control over their class regarding dents’ success and failure. Close Ended Questionnaire The close-ended responses were collected on a 5-point Liker scale and converted into a numerical scale (Strongly agree??I , Agree=2, Neutral=3, Disagree=4, strongly disagree=5).