Most brain crosiers have no cure and they have adverse effects to the individual to an extent that they may be everlasting may be long lasting. Schizophrenia is a disorder of the brain Schizophrenia Schizophrenia Is a serious disorder of the brain that causes distortion of the thinking, expressing emotions, acting, relating to others and perceiving reality. It is the most disabling and chronic mental illness and people with it have problems functioning in school, in relationships and in the society. The symptoms of the disorder always cause the victim, to live a withdrawn and frightened life Cones, Buckley & Kessler, 2006).
The disorder is a long life one that has no cure but it can only controlled by using proper medication. Schizophrenia Is a serious and deliberating medical Illness that causes profound effects on the victim’s life and the lives of the Immediate friends and family. The course and symptoms of the illness vary considerably between the victims making diagnosis and management of the disorder a complex task for clinician, the family and the community at large Ones, Buckley & Kessler, 2006). The disorder is a psychosis, a type of mental illness in which a person is unable to differentiate from reality and imagination.
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Sometimes the individuals with confusing images, sounds and thoughts. Their behavior may be strange and a times even shocking. The individuals pass through psychotic episodes, which are periods when the sufferers of the disorders lose touch with reality causing them to have a sudden change in behavior and personality (Leaks, 2004). The severity of the disorder varies person to person. Some people may experience only one psychotic period during their lifetime while others experience many psychotic periods. However, the individuals always lead normal lives between the psychotic episodes.
The symptoms of the disorder seem to improve and worsen in cycles called remissions and relapses. The features of the disorder include extraordinary beliefs and delusions, emotion hedonism and volition, distorted thought construction which manifest itself as a disorder of language, delusions and extraordinary beliefs, widespread cognitive problems that affects memory and other executive functions, unusual and often restricted behavior, hallucinations and inferential Judgment Cones, Buckley & Kessler, 2006). These are collection of features since no two cases of the disorder are the name.
No single feature is necessary or sufficient for the diagnosis of the disorder but many cases of the feature are obvious for the diagnosis since schizophrenia has a variety of characteristic features present (Leaks, 2004). The disorder is very rare. The disorder rarely manifests itself before puberty and most commonly the disorder onsets itself in the first half of adult life. After the first episode of the disorder, all outcomes are possible. Some individuals recover completely and other have a remitting or relapsing course for almost a decade or more.
Other individuals experience several progression of the disorder, disabling disorder that may cause early death from either a range of physical causes that are common to people with the disorder or suicide. Anyone can get schizophrenia. The disorder tends to have its onset during early adulthood and it is extremely rare before puberty has been reached. The disorder has been diagnosed in all races, cultures and all over the world. The disorder affects both women and men equally. However, the symptoms appear in women late as compared to men since they appear generally earlier.
Early symptoms of the disorder may develop due to a severe course of illness. The disorder only occurs in 1% of the total population of the world. If the symptoms of the disorder appear to be present, the doctor performs a physical exam and a complete medical history. However, there are no laboratory tests that are specifically developed to diagnose the disorder. The doctor may choose to use tests such as blood test and x- rays in order to rile put intoxication or physical illness as the cause of the development of the symptoms.
The doctor can order the brain imaging studies such as CT scan and MR. in order to look for any brain abnormalities associated with the disorder Cones, Buckley & Kessler, 2006). If the doctor does not find any physical reason for the symptoms of schizophrenia, the victim may be referred to mental health professionals, psychologists or psychiatrists who are trained to diagnose and prescribe medication that can be used to treat the disorder. Psychologists and psychiatrist use specially designed assessment and interview tools to evaluate an individual for the symptoms of the disorder (Leaks, 2004).
In most cases, the therapist uses the person’s description of the symptoms and his or her observation on the person’s behavior and attitude to base his or her diagnosis. In order for any re related with the disorder lasting for at least six months. Subtypes of the disorder Schizophrenia is term that represents a group of complex mental disorders. Different types of the disorders may exhibit similar symptoms. However, the basis of their differentiation is the difference that occurs in symptoms.
The subtypes include: Paranoid Schizophrenia These victims of the disorder have their minds always occupied with delusions (false beliefs) of persecution or punishment from other people. However, they have normal thinking and emotions and are often highly functional in regards to their relationship ND ability to work. Individuals who have persecutory delusions are suicidal and violent and they have the greatest potential of becoming stable and functional over time. The individuals exhibit argumentative or aloof behavior, anger and anxiety Cones, Buckley & Kessler, 2006).
The symptoms of this disorder are not exhibited until later in life. The individuals usually do not display odd or unusual behavior and they are active in the social functioning aspect. However, they do not discuss their hallucinations and delusions until they become too overwhelming to cope with or hey become overbearing to a point that friends and family who force the individual to speak out and seek professional help recognize them Cones, Buckley & Kessler, 2006). Disorganized Schizophrenia The subtype of the disorder was formerly called hebephrenic.
People with this type of the disorder often get incoherent and confused and have Jumbled speech. These individuals may have flat, inappropriate or emotionless outward behavior and at times, it may be childlike or silly. Their disorganized behavior disrupts their performance ability of dairy activities such as cooking, showering among others Cones, Buckley & Kessler, 2006). Catatonic Schizophrenia Symptoms of this subtype of schizophrenia are physical. Victims are generally unresponsive to the environment that surrounds them and they are immobile.
They are rigid, stiff and unwilling to move. Occasionally they may have peculiar movements such as grimacing or assuming bizarre postures Cones, Buckley & Kessler, 2006). They may repeat a phrase or word that has been spoken by somebody else and they may engage in some restless ongoing activity for no reason or desired outcome. There behaviors often revolve around restless, purposeless and sedentary behaviors ND their risk of exhaustion, malnutrition and self-inflicted injury is high Cones, Buckley & Kessler, 2006).
Residual Schizophrenia In this subtype, the symptoms severities have already decreased. However, delusion, hallucinations and other symptoms can be present but they are reduced compared to when the disorder was originally diagnosed. Negative disturbances such as blank looks, inexpressive faces, seeming lack of interest in people and the world, monotone speech and inability to fell pleasure are present (Haycock & Shay, 2009). Undifferentiated Schizophrenia individual cannot clearly represent any type of the disorder.
The patients do not meet any criteria for any of the subtypes of the disorder (Haycock & Shay, 2009). The individuals may have the minimum criteria for schizophrenia but the symptoms that they have are not consistent enough to meet the patterns of symptoms that are consistent with any of the subtypes. They may have symptoms that are not that are part of more than only one subtype. The symptoms may be consistent over a certain period and then suddenly change to the symptoms of another classification of the disorder (Haycock & Shay, 2009).
Causes of Schizophrenia Environmental Causes Stress during pregnancy or at later development stage of children is one of the environmental factors that may cause the disorder. High levels of stress increase the production cortical hormone, which triggers schizophrenia (Strauss, & Carpenter Jar, 1972). Various environmental factors that may trigger schizophrenia include prenatal exposure to a viral infection, physical or sexual abuse in childhood, early prenatal separation or loss, exposure to virus during infancy and low levels of oxygen during birth ( from premature birth or prolonged labor).
Viral infection and exposure to toxins such as marijuana and Stress may trigger episodes of the disorder. Early traumatic experiences and abuse as a children are risk factors that may cause the development of schizophrenia later in life, poverty and discrimination increases the risk of having episodes of the disorder since they cause high levels of stress and they harbor unpleasant lifestyles (Strauss, & Carpenter Jar, 1972). The disorder may surface when the body is going through a period of physical and hormonal changes such as those that occur ate the teen and young adult years.
The social drift hypothesis explains that people affected by the disorder are unable to hold demanding, higher paying Jobs and they cosign themselves to other lesser Jobs increasing their levels of stress and leaving them susceptible to acquiring the symptoms of schizophrenia. Genetic Causes Scientists hold that schizophrenia runs in families. Several genes are associated with the increased risk of contracting the disorder. People with a first-degree relative (sibling or parent) who has the disorder have a 10 percent chance of acquiring schizophrenia.
However, the disorder is not determined by genetics but it is only influenced by it (Strauss, & Carpenter Jar, 1972). Abnormal Brain Structure An abnormality in the brain structure plays a role in the development of the disorder. The brain of the victim is different from the healthy people. They have fluid filled ventricles (cavities at the center of the brain and there gray matter is reduced, some of the parts of their brain may have more or less activity (Strauss, & Carpenter Jar, 1972). The enlarged brain ventricles indicate that there is a deficit in the brain tissue.
Evidence also shows that some schizophrenics have reduced activity in the rental lobe of the brain, the area that is responsible for reasoning, decision making and planning. Abnormalities in the temporal lobes, amazedly and hippopotamus are connected to the positive symptoms of the disorder. However, it is unlikely that the disorder is the result of any one problem that has developed in any one region of the chemical brain reactions involving glutamate and dopamine plays a role in the development of schizophrenia.
Reduced glutamate causes poor performance in test that requires the Hippocratic function and the frontal lobe. The neurotransmitter effects the functioning of dopamine (Haycock & Shay, 2009). Low levels of the glutamate receptors have been recorded after postmortem of the brains of the individuals previously diagnosed with schizophrenia. Glutamate blocks drugs such a astatine and penicillin mimicking the symptoms and cognitive problems that are associated with the disorder.
Early warning signs of this disorder To some people the disorder appear without warning. However, it develops slowly with some subtle warning signs and gradual decline in the functioning long before the development of the first severe episodes of the disorder. Many family, friends and relatives have reported that they observed that something was getting wrong before the disorder developed (Brown, Broadcloth, & Nonskid, 2000). In the early phases of the disorder, people with the disorder are eccentric, emotionless, unmotivated, reclusive and unmotivated.
The individual’s starts neglecting their activities, hobbies, show general indifference to life, isolate themselves, and they say peculiar things. The individuals abandon their activities and hobbies and their performance at school or work deteriorates. The most common early signs of the crosier include insomnia or oversleeping, depression, irrational or odd statements, strange use of words or way of speaking, extreme reaction to criticism, and forgetful and inability to concentrate (Brown, Broadcloth, & Nonskid, 2000).
The individuals may have suspiciousness and hostility, social withdrawal, decline or deterioration of personal hygiene, inability to express emotions of happiness or sadness, expressionless or flat gaze and inappropriate crying or laughter. Symptoms of the disorder People with the disorder exhibit a number of symptoms that involve the changes in he personality, behavior and they may show different behavior at different times. During the early days with the disorder, individuals have symptoms that are severe and sudden.
The disorders symptoms are categorized into three groups that include, negative symptoms, disorganized symptoms and positive symptoms (Brown, Broadcloth, & Nonskid, 2000). However, there are cognitive symptoms of the disorder, which include trouble in paying attention or focusing, poor executive function such as the failure to understand information and apply it in decision-making and fisticuff with the working memory of the individual that involves difficulties of using information immediately after learning it. The negative symptoms reflect the absence of certain normal behaviors in people with the disorder (Haycock & Shay, 2009).
They include reduced speech, low or lack of motivation, reduced energy, poor grooming and hygiene habits, loss of interest or pleasure in life, limited range of emotions and withdrawal from social activities, family and friends. Disorganized symptoms of the disorder are the positive symptoms that reflect in the victim’s inability to respond appropriately and think clearly (Haycock & Shay, 2009). They include inability to make decisions, slow movements, writing excessive literature that has no meaning and talking in sentence that are meaningless that makes the individual unable to engage in conversations or even to communicate.
The movements and they have problems making sense of everyday sounds, feelings and sights (Haycock & Shay, 2009). The positive symptoms do not mean that they are good but they refer to symptoms that are obvious and not common to people who do not have the disorder. They are sometimes referred to as psychotic symptoms and hey include hallucinations, delusions and catatonia (Haycock & Shay, 2009). Catatonia is a situation where the victim becomes fixed in one single position for a long time. Hallucinations involve the perceptions that the victim may have which are not real.
They include smelling strange odors, hearing voices, seeing things that don not exist, feeling sensations of touch in the skin when in reality there is nothing that is touching them, and having funny tastes on their mouths (Haycock & Shay, 2009). Delusions are the beliefs that some of the victims have that are not based on reality. The victim does not give up even when facts are presented to him/ her. Effects of If the sign and symptoms of the disorder are improperly treated or ignored, the effects can be devastating to both the individual and the people surrounding him/ her.
Relationship problems may arise since the schizophrenics always withdraw and isolate themselves. Paranoia may cause suspicion to develop forcing the individual to live in isolation. The victim’s daily activities are disrupted. Delusion, disorganized thoughts and hallucinations prevent the individual from engaging n things like dating, bathing or running errands (Haycock & Shay, 2009). People with the disorder frequently develop alcohol and drug abuse character as an attempt to relieve the symptoms or to self-medicate.
In particular, the individuals become heavy smokers a complicating situation since the smoke from the cigarette can possibly interfere with the effectiveness of the medications that are prescribed for the disorder. A more serious effect is the increased risk of committing suicide. They are likely to commit suicide during the first six months of treatment or during the psychotic episodes and depression periods. Treatment of Schizophrenia The goal of the treatment of the disorder is to decrease the chances of relapse, reduce the symptoms or prevent return of the symptoms.
The disorder can be treated through medication. The primary medications that are used to treat it are called antispasmodics (Brown, Broadcloth, & Nonskid, 2000). The drugs that are administered do not cure the disorder but they only reduce the troubling symptoms such as delusions, thinking problems and hallucinations. Medications that are used to treat the disorder include Hallo, Satellite, Throatier, Nave Prolix, Millard mongo others. New medications have been invented to deal with the disorder. They include Sapphires, Luda, Gideon, Residual, Carousel, Ability, and Zapper (Brown, Broadcloth, & Nonskid, 2000).
Psychosocial therapy is another form of medication that can help to relieve the symptoms of the disorder. The psychosocial therapy helps to relieve social, occupational, social, behavioral and psychological symptoms of the disorder. Through this kind of therapy, the patients can learn early signs of relapse, develop relapse prevention measures and learn how to manage the symptoms of the disorder. Individual psychotherapy can help the person to better understand his or her illness and learn problem solving and coping skills (Brown, Broadcloth, & Nonskid, 2000).
Rehabilitation that is focused in Job training and social skills can help people groups and group therapy can provide mutual support to the victim. Another form of psychosocial therapy is the family therapy that helps families understand the disorder and deal effectively with their loved ones who have the disorder. Cryosurgery can also be used to treat the disorder. Lobotomy is a form of operation used to sever some nerve pathways in the brain. It was formerly used to victims who had chronic and severe schizophrenia.
However, today the surgery is done under extremely rare circumstances because of the serious and irreversible personality changes that lobotomy may produce (Crow, 2008). ACT- Electronegative therapy can also be used as a treatment plan for the disorder. This is a procedure where electrodes are attached to the patients head followed by delivery of a series of electric shocks to the brain. However, this form of treatment is rarely used and it is useful when all other forms of medication and treatment methods have failed or if ever catatonia or depression makes treating the illness difficult.
Patients who are in danger of hurting himself or herself or others may have to be hospitalized to help in stabilizing their condition. The patients are treated as outpatients. Conclusion Many people have the notion that people with the disorder are violent and dangerous. This is not the case since many people with the illness are not violent and they prefer to withdraw. However, during psychosis the individuals may engage in violent and dangerous behaviors. Some of their behaviors may also be because of fear from the feelings of being threatened by their environment.
With proper treatment, most of the victims can lead a fulfilling and productive life. There is no known way to prevent the development of the disorder. However, if the signs are diagnosed early treatment can help to reduce or avoid the frequent relapses. This can help to decrease the disruption to the person’s family, personal life and relationship. References Brown, S. , Broadcloth, B. , & Nonskid, H. (2000). Causes of the excess mortality of schizophrenia. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 177(3), 212-217. Crow, T. J. (2008). Molecular pathology of schizophrenia: more than one disease process?.