Leadership Ability to make people powerful Influence process – leaders and followers work tag to achieve shared objectives (team work) through change Influencing – process of a leader communicating ideas, gain acceptance and motivate followers to support and implement the ideas thru change. Effective leaders provide competitive advantage, make positive difference in lives of people, functioning of groups, success of organ Leaders make or break organ Can be good or evil influential leader (Osama bin laden) – qualities of an influential leader Can be based on:
Special role or shared influence process Successful or not successful Ethical or non-ethical goals Reason or emotion Direct or indirect Assumptions Very few born leaders – capabilities can be nurtured Leadership transcends culture, gender etc week 2 Honesty leads to trust communication is very important foundation of trust Ethically bias that favors one’s own group conflict of interest overlaid credit Biasness is commonplace – mindful leaders check their biasness Why we cheat and lie?
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Rational Economics – based on rational analysis of the situation They cheat, You cheat, I cheat SMOOCH- Simple model of rational crime – cost-benefit analysis 0 dishonesty depends on: benefit, probability of getting caught, expected punishment Fudge Factor Theory We want to view ourselves as honest, honorable persons (ego motivation), We want to benefit from cheating and get as much money as possible (standard financial motivation) Cognitive flexibility allows us to view ourselves as being great persons and cheating a little at the same time 0 thin line How to reduce cheating?
Psychological immediacy/distance (stealing from friend vs. stealing from company & stealing coke vs. stealing money) Honor codes – serves as a reminder Religious reminders Signature at the top How ethical are we? Thoughts – unbiased? Words – honesty? Actions – principled? Amalgam and leadership Characters and situational factors can influence employee thoughts, words and deeds Obedience – effects of authority vs. situations on actions ( we are afraid of the consequences) – moral vs. authority and situation How do we bring our better qualities in followers?
Recognize situations and try to rise above it Consciences doing the right thing week 3 Coach K- places trust in people Coach Knight 0 power of negative thinking – some employees work better when Truckee imposed on them Theory X workers: dislike work, lack ambition, desire security, dislike responsibility, prefer to be led Theory Y: Consider work as rest or play, do not dislike work, seek responsibility Styles of leadership Person 0 Style (how we lead) 0 Situation Self awareness (who are we? Personal theories of motivation Basic assumptions of human nature (values, identity, character) Situational demands – norms, culture, task demands, subordinate needs Leadership traits??? Individual traits – personality traits, needs and motives, values, self-concepts, skills Capabilities – ‘Q, CEQ, Industry knowledge
Credibility – integrity of words and actions, ethical values Drivers – high need for achievement and power, low need for affiliation Sustainer and refiners mindset, learning goal orientation Introverts: generally better listeners – CASE, flexible internal power – give birth to fully formed ideas, insights and solutions Do not seek or grab limelight but want to shine light on others Calming demeanor Build more meaningful relationships Theory X and theory Y.
Core self evaluation – superstars – extent to which a person views himself/herself as capable, worthy and in control of life – encompasses internal locus of control, self efficacy, self esteem and emotional stability Implicit theories and mindset people can change even their most basic qualities (flexible/incremental mindset) 0 learning/mastery goal orientation 0 aim to learn, acquire new skills and develop competence by mastering new situations People can do things differently, but the important parts of who they are can’t really be changed (fixed/entity mindset) 0 performance goal orientation 0 aim to demonstrate and validate their competence by seeking favorable evaluation and avoiding negative Judgments 0 underestimate the ewer of learning, effort and persistence, respond less effectively to setbacks, opposition, questioning, failure and negative feedback, less prepared to help followers gain new knowledge and acquire new skills Growth mindset 0 avoidance motives 0 desire to avoid negative Judgments of one’s competence and is related to disengagement from challenging situations Approach motives – tendency to strive toward achieving challenging standards of task performance, and direct one’s behaviors towards a desirable possibility Certain traits can be effective in one situation but not another, traits are only part of the story
Week 4 – Power Power – the potency to influence others, within r/s, dynamic, perception Influence is the process the leader uses to make sure the followers do what the leaders wants them to do Influence tactics 0 behaviors used intentionally to influence attitudes and behaviors of others Influence processes 0 Instrumental compliance, initialization, identification Influence outcomes 0 compliance, commitment, resistance Power types : Position power (Legitimate, reward, coercive, information, ecological) & Personal power (expert, referent) Legitimate – power stemming from formal authority over work activities Reward – ability to provide desired rewards Coercive – agent’s authority over punishments Information – control over information Ecological – control over the physical environment, tech, org or the work Expert – task-relevant knowledge and skills Referent – desire of others to please an agent to whom they have strong feelings of affect, admiration and loyalty Effective leaders rely on expert and referent power Influence tactics – rational (rational persuasion, apprising), hard(legitimate,pressure, coalition), soft (inspirational appeal, ingratiation, personal appeal, exchange, consultation, collaboration) Week 5 – charismatic and transformational leadership Leadership 0 lead with meaning Charisma 0 a form of influence based on perceptions that the leader is endowed with exceptional qualities Articulate a novel and appealing vision, com high expectation, use emotional appeals, establish community/commitment with symbols, images, slogans, romanticizes risk, provide assurance, discipline, rise from a bad situation to change to situation ad gain power Influence process Personal identification – desire to emulate leader Social identification – self merger with group/cause Initialization – embrace leader/group values
Self and collective efficacy – can do mind set Emotional contagion – tendency for 2 individuals to emotionally converge Instrumental compliance – sub complies to get the reward the manager controls or avoid punishment Charisma: Product of 3 elements – spark(leader with vision, conviction, personal sacrifice, confidence&optism), flammable material(open and receptive people with feelings/emotion of anxiety, fear, hope), oxygen(a conducive environment, change, crisis, uncertainty, opposition) Consequences of charismatic leadership – motivation, inspiration, commitment, development, performance -personal meaning (make emotional sense) Negative: dilutes Judgment, is addictive, disguises psychopaths, fosters collective narcissism Transformational Leadership: focus on changing the status quo by articulating compelling vision and enlisting follower support to reach it, move employees beyond narrow self interest to care for group/organ, address concerns for fair exchange relationship -economic factors What transformational leaders do: Inspiration motivation – articulate a vision Idealized influence – model core values through words, actions and decisions Individualized motivation – attuning approach to follower attributes and needs
Intellectual simulation – challenge followers to think and act in new ways Authentic leadership – knowing, accepting, acting in accord with and revealing one’s true self (core values and beliefs) Are self aware – understand personal qualities, purposes, values, beliefs, desires and place in community Objective sense of weakness and negative qualities in addition to strengths Behavioral integrity: action match values Relational transparency – high accessibility, openness and self disclosure Stewardship and servant leadership – empower followers Stewardship: accommodating others to perform at their best for the organ Servant adhering: give top priority to other’s needs and their personal [professional growth Purpose: teamwork, equality, empowerment, acknowledging contributions Posture: respect, trust, listen, support, serve Need a combination of transformational leadership (develop people), authentic leadership(full disclosure), servant/stewardship (other focused purpose and posture) Personal magnetism: Presence, warmth, power Power – perceived as being able to affect the world around us Increasing power – boost your confidence, knowledgeable, physically fit, dress to impress, power poses Presence: making the other person feel important and good about himself – focus your mental and emotional energy on someone as you interact Warmth: When you emanate warmth, people see u as being approachable, caring, and empathetic, they feel comfortable and at ease around you 0 must have real empathy and curiosity about other people Developing warmth 0 practice gratitude, develop empathy Giving and receiving feedback – ultimate purpose should be for benefits of the person Become a better receiver: Know your tendencies, evaluate feedback, take time to digest, regularly ask for feedback, try to apply it