I do not believe that doing clinical trials in India would be the best interest of the stakeholders. (Economic and Ethical aspects) From a financial perspective developing countries such as India doesn’t benefit Novo Norris’s and they would have to save costs, they would have to pay attention to rules and use full resources which could cost money. They would have the demographic patient poll, they would be able to do trials cheaper and have a faster pick of the patients.
In order to do this In a country without the wealth they would have to clip corners and use cheaper resources and ell as cheaper products, which could harm the patients in the trials. The concern is that they have a social responsibility to making profits. This would affect the primary stakeholders which are the customers, suppliers and the shareholders concerning the ethical consequences of the policies and procedures involved in conducting trials in India. They would also have to be concerned with secondary stakeholders such as, the media or special interest groups.
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To be socially responsible they must weigh and balance the economic, legal and ethical consequences. So they must perform and economic analysis so they don’t engage In deceptive and dangerous practices so the individuals won’t get hurt. This is when we have to be careful clipping corners can be unethical. Perhaps the concern of using Placebos might affect their social responsibility. A legal analysis is required to see If an ethical problem exists. They would do this by complying by the laws of the country as well as their own.
They must ask themselves several question such as is it in violation with the international agreements? Does it follow the company’s ethical code? Is it consistent with the Meany’s culture or with the cultural norms? Is it consistent with the personal moral beliefs? If they answer yes to all those questions then they can move forward. After the Economic and Legal analysis are done they should also consider the ethical analysis. They must determine what the right thing is to do.
They must use deontological reasoning where they know and follow the written rules. The Interest and well-being of the trial subject should be first concern not the concern of the science and society. By using prescriptive ethics Novo should avoid negative uniqueness of the stakeholders. (Trial participants and India) they would have to make a contract with participants stating a fair profit, and duties that go along with that. Also they would have to enter into a contract with India following their laws.
They must also make sure that they agree on the basic rules of their moral behavior. India and Novo should agree on the basic rules or moral behavior. Focusing on the Code of conduct and must include prescriptive and proscriptive rules to guide their behaviors. This would tell them what they can do and what they cannot do. The clinical trial would have concerns of a lack of regulation of private trials and the requirements for informed consent and proper ethics review.
One of the most popular teleological ethical theories is utilitarianism, “the greatest good for the greatest number” focusing on the consequences and to select India they could do a cost-and-benefit analysis. The utilitarian’s basic language view says that they must maximize human welfare, exposing Indian’s trial participants to a placebo or a potentially dangerous testing without the proper understanding and care could harm examine the benefits if there are potentially unpleasant outcomes or consequences to be made.
Perhaps if the placebo doesn’t harm them and was administered without their knowledge but didn’t harm them is this still ethical? They could also focus on the deontological ethical theory which focuses on the morality and the actions of the good and bad. Meaning they should know what is right because that is how an ethical person should behave. Corrupt practices would also be another concern, because of India being a OLD they may use poorer quality products which loud have serious consequences on the clinical trials and individuals involved.
They may also not allocate their resources to the fullest. Principles that guide the decisions are conducting trials in developing countries like India is not beneficial for the company, therefore Novo Norris’s would have to be very careful and follow the guidelines making sure that they do not ruin their reputation and the best interest of their stakeholders. Making sure they are not using Placebo clinical trials, making sure that they are scientifically and ethically Justified. Furthermore, placebo trials would only be used on healthy volunteers during first phase of the trials.
Focusing on the codes of conduct on the dos and don’t of what is ethically right or wrong. Making sure that the stakeholders all agree to the code of conduct. They would also have to make decisions, resolve conflicts, build teams, and manage solutions. (Emerging economies and standards) Conducting clinical trials in an emerging economy would save cost, the demographics would be much larger, and the rules would be less strict and establishing efficacy with environmental differences.
They just build their reputation and trust which will make them better off in the long run, make sure that the interest and well-being of the individuals should trump the interest of science. They must still only use placebo trials when they are ethically and scientific legitimate reasons for the well-being of the individual and not Just the science of it. It would be the best interest of the stakeholders to do their trials in emerging economies. In order for this to be effective they would have to have recruitment, a site manager, and focus on the data analysis tactics.
They would also be able to spend more on healthcare and attractiveness to R&D would have to be plentiful. They would have to be careful of the use of bribery and corruption which could be devastating to the whole clinical trial as well as to the stakeholders. Sometimes when bribery is used they will use poorer quality of products and materials to make up for the bribe and then using these could be devastating to the individuals and unethical. Because of bribery issues this could also make the prices too high and inefficient allocations of the resources.
They would have to use such standards as APPC practices, such as the Prohibited foreign trade practices. The APPC forbids United States companies form making or offering payments or gifts to foreign government officials for the sake of gaining or retaining business. A code of conduct is also in order, respecting basic human rights, maintaining high standards of local political involvement, transfer technology, consumer protection, employment practices and protect the environment. They could also have common standards and rules for those with different cultural backgrounds.