: Using rhetoric is sometimes difficult, but this chapter explains how to use rhetoric correctly and what all needs to be in a piece of writing. Appealing to ethos, logos, and pathos is the large part of using rhetoric. This chapter also explains how to organize a piece of writing when using rhetoric. L. Rhetoric often gets referred to as trickery or to be deceptive. A. Aristotle defined rhetoric as “the faculty of observing in any case the available meaner of persuasion” 1. Rhetoric is an activity that leads to effective communication. . Rational exchange of opposing views. B. If you could appeal to the audience you would find yourself in a position of strength and also be able to persuade readers or listeners. 1. Rhetoric is always situational. A. It has context. B. It has a purpose. C. Have to have a clear subject 2. Lou Geris speech that he gave on Appreciation day in 1939 was a great example of rhetoric and all the things that have to be in it. C. The word rhetoric may also suggest deception. D. You have to make a clear main idea also known as a thesis, a claim, or an assertion.
The rhetorical triangle, also referred to as the Aristotelian triangle described he interaction among the subject, speaker, and the audience, as well as how the interaction determines the structure and audience of the argument. A. B. The writer must choose a subject and evaluate what they already know about that subject. C. The character that the speaker creates when he or she writes or speaks is called the persona. 1. You need to find out what you’re speaking as. 2. You also have to think about the audience and how they would react. Ill.
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After you analyze the relationship between the speaker to the subject, audience to speaker, and audience to subject the writer is going to have to make some strategic choices. A. The writer has to persuade the audience by appealing to ethos, logos, and pathos. B. Authors and writers appeal to ethos by demonstrating that they are credible and trustworthy. C. There are many different ways that you can emphasize or establish ethos. 1. Appeals to ethos are usually emphasized by shared values between the speaker and the audience. 2. Make yourself a subject matter expert. . A speaker’s reputation immediately established ethos. 4. Through discourse of itself and by making a good impression established ethos. A. Impression may result from a tone of reason or goodwill. B. From the type of information resented. D. To appeal to logos you need to offer clear, rational ideas. 1. Have to have a clear main idea. 2. Anticipate objections or opposing views. 3. Include specific details. A. Could also include examples, facts, statistical data, or expert testimony as support. B. The idea must be logical E. Pathos is emotion.
F. Choosing language that engages the emotions of the audience can add important dimension. G. A speaker or writer can appeal to pathos by understanding that the power of evoking audiences’ emotions is very effective. 1. Emotional appeals are vivid, concrete and a description of figurative language. . Visual elements also carry a strong emotional appeal. IV. The organization of a piece is called the arrangement. A. An essay always has a beginning, middle, and an ending. An introduction, developmental paragraphs, and a conclusion. B.
Classical rhetoricians used a five-part structure for an oratory, or speech. 1. The introduction. A. B. 2. Introduces the reader to the subject. Draws the readers into the text. Often the introduction uses ethos. The narration. Provides background material and factual information on the subject. B. Establishes why the subject is a problem and how it gets addressed. C. Often appeals to pathos. 3. D. 4. 5. The confirmation. Major part of the text. The inner workings of the essay. Contains the most specific details. Strongest appeal to logos. The refutation. Counterargument.
Appeal is largely to logos. The conclusion. Brings the essay to an end. Usually appeals to pathos. Brings all the writers ideas together and answers any questions left unanswered. C. Another way to consider arrangement is according to purpose. 1. Organization or arrangement. 2. Organize an entire text or individual paragraphs or sections. D. Narration is telling a story or series of events. Not crafting appealing story. Crafting a story that supports your thesis. Description includes many details. Emphasizing the sense of painting a picture. Establish mood.
Vivid descriptions make writing more persuasive. Process analysis how something works, how to do something, or how something has been done. G. Providing examples turns a general idea into a concrete one. Facts 2. Specific cases 3. Instances H. Using examples makes your argument more clear and persuasive to the reader. L. A common pattern of development is compare and contrast. 1. Highlighting the similarities and differences of a piece of work. 2. Analyze information carefully. J. Compare and contrast is used when you discuss the subtle differences or similarities.
K. Comparisons and Contrasts can be organized in two ways. 1. Subject by subject 2. Point by point L. Analyzing the causes that lead to a certain effect or, conversely, the effects result from a cause is a powerful foundation for argument. 1. Cause and effect is signaled by a why in the title or paragraph. 2. It is important to carefully trace a chain of cause and effect. V. Not every attempt at effective rhetoric hits its mark. A. Whether a speech is rhetorically effective is a matter of opinion. B. Understanding your audience is important in visual text.