Executive Summary This assessment task consists of 360 degree evaluation by others about my leadership style as well as my self assessment in Section B. I have taken four people which helped me in doing my 360 degree evaluation which were, my Boss, my work colleague, my classmate and my room mate. They helped my out in analyzing my leadership style, style effectiveness, leader behavior analysis and servant leadership scores.
Also, section A consists of the self evaluation ??? instrumental self rating of assertiveness, leadership style, my terminal as well as instrumental values, self awareness, cognitive style, tolerance and ambiguity scale, interpersonal relationship ratings, behavioral style profile(feeler style), positive and negative expressivity, attending to motions, emotion based decision making, responsive joy and distress, empathic concern, typology, DISC personality evaluation. Part B is focused on what I have done and learnt from my evaluation of quizzes and readings given in the Study Guide.
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Through this report I learned a lot about my personality, strengths and weaknesses, organizational culture and national culture and its effects, my point of view as well as others point of view on my leadership style and their views were attributed. Also, in the end leadership theories as well as models are described the ones which were in the unit as well as the ones which I found out through my other researched material. For an overall development and to get an extensive view, this assessment was very crucial form of learning and getting a wider perspective/outlook of this whole unit for me.
It needed an intensive research with referencing books, articles, journals, management websites, company profiles, etc. Due to time constraints the depth could not be covered even though I would have cherished to do more research. Introduction Leadership is “the behaviour of an individual when he is directing the activities of a group towards a shared goal”. (Hemphill and Coons, 1957, p. 7) A leader is interpreted as someone who sets direction in an effort and influences people to follow that direction. How they set that direction and influence people depends on a variety of factors.
To really comprehend the “territory” of leadership, in this report I have briefly scanned some of the major theories, notice various styles of leadership and viewed some of the theories & models. Good leaders are made not born, is my perception. If you have the desire and willpower, you can become an effective leader. Good leaders develop through a never ending process of self-study, education, training, and experience. To inspire your workers into higher levels of teamwork, there are certain things you must be, know, and, do. These do not come naturally, but are acquired through continual work and study.
Good leaders are continually working and studying to improve their leadership skills; they are NOT resting on their laurels. (StudyGuide, 2008) Answer 1 Leadership style is the manner and approach of providing direction, implementing plans, and motivating people. All the different styles–authoritarian or autocratic; participative or democratic; and delegative or free reign have the applicability. (Dubrin, A. , 2006) Like for instance, using an authoritarian style on a new employee who is just learning the job, this style would be appropriate. The leader is competent and a good coach.
The employee is motivated to learn a new skill. The situation is a new environment for the employee. Now an opportunity to use a participative style would be with a team of workers who know their jobs. The leader knows the problem, but does not have all the information, the employees know their jobs and want to become part of the team. But, in the case of a worker who knows more about the job than you using a delegative (free reign) style. You cannot do everything! The employee needs to take ownership of her or his job. Also, the situation might call for you to be at other places, doing other things.
However, there are situations that we will use all three, for instance, telling your employees that a procedure is not working correctly and a new one must be established (authoritarian). Asking for their ideas and input on creating a new procedure (participative). And last, but not least, delegating tasks in order to implement the new procedure (delegative). The role of leadership in management is largely determined by the organisational culture of the company. It has been argued that manager’s beliefs, values and assumptions are of critical importance to the overall style of leadership that they adopt.
After undertaking the Self Assessment Quiz 3. 2 on pg-78 of the textbook, the leadership style I characterize and others characterize about me is participative leader or democratic leadership style. The participative leader makes decisions by consulting his/her team, whilst still maintaining control of the group. The participative leader also allows his team to decide how the task will be tackled and who will perform which task. A good democratic leader encourages participation and delegates wisely, but never loses sight of the fact that he bears the crucial responsibility of leadership.
He values group discussion and input from his team and can be seen as drawing from a pool of his team members’ strong points in order to obtain the best performance from his team. He motivates his team by empowering them to direct themselves, and guides them with a loose reign. However, a weakness could be democrat can also be seen as being so unsure of himself and his relationship with his sub-ordinates that everything is a matter for group discussion and decision. Answer 2 Good leader’s always tend to use all three styles, with one of them normally dominant, bad leaders tend to stick with one style. Hofstede, Geert, 1977) Authoritarian (autocratic) I want both of you to. . . This style is used when leaders tell their employees what they want done and how they want it accomplished, without getting the advice of their followers. Some of the appropriate conditions to use it is when you have all the information to solve the problem, you are short on time, and your employees are well motivated. Some people tend to think of this style as a vehicle for yelling, using demeaning language, and leading by threats and abusing their power.
This is not the authoritarian style, rather it is an abusive, unprofessional style called bossing people around. It has no place in a leader’s repertoire. The authoritarian style should normally only be used on rare occasions. If you have the time and want to gain more commitment and motivation from your employees, then you should use the participative style. Participative (democratic) Let’s work together to solve this. . . This style involves the leader including one or more employees in the decision making process (determining what to do and how to do it).
However, the leader maintains the final decision making authority. Using this style is not a sign of weakness; rather it is a sign of strength that your employees will respect. This is normally used when you have part of the information, and your employees have other parts. Using this style is of mutual benefit — it allows them to become part of the team and allows you to make better decisions. Delegative (free reign) You two take care of the problem while I go. . . In this style, the leader allows the employees to make the decisions. However, the leader is still responsible for the decisions that are made.
This is used when employees are able to analyze the situation and determine what needs to be done and how to do it. You cannot do everything! You must set priorities and delegate certain tasks. (Lewin, K. , LIippit, R. and White, R. K. , 1939) This is not a style to use so that you can blame others when things go wrong, rather this is a style to be used when you fully trust and confidence in the people below you. Do not be afraid to use it, however, one has to use it wisely! This is also known as lais…sez faire (or lais…ser faire), which is the noninterference in the affairs of others.
A good leader uses all three styles, depending on what forces are involved between the followers, the leader, and the situation. Some examples include: – Using an authoritarian style on a new employee who is just learning the job. The leader is competent and a good coach. The employee is motivated to learn a new skill. The situation is a new environment for the employee. – Using a participative style with a team of workers who know their job. The leader knows the problem, but does not have all the information. The employees know their jobs and want to become part of the team. Using a delegative style with a worker who knows more about the job than you. You cannot do everything! The employee needs to take ownership of her job. Also, the situation might call for you to be at other places, doing other things. – Using all three: Telling your employees that a procedure is not working correctly and a new one must be established (authoritarian). Asking for their ideas and input on creating a new procedure (participative). Delegating tasks in order to implement the new procedure (delegative). (Newstrom, John W. & Davis, Keith, 1993) Answer 3 During the personality test I undertook in Reading 2. 1 I found out that I am Sanguine ??? Popular. I have got an appealing personality, I am talkative, a story teller, life of the party, have good sense of humor, have memory for color, can physically hold on to the listener, I am emotional and demonstrative, I am enthusiastic and impressive, I am cheerful and bubbling all over, Curious to learn different things from life, always good on stage, I am wide ??? eyed and innocent which I feel is something absolutely accurate about me, I like to live in the present, changeable at disposition, sincere at heart, always a child.
A work part of my personality includes, always volunteering for jobs, thinks up new activities at work, looks great on the surface my point of view, always creative and colorful at work, has energy and enthusiasm, starts in a flashy way, inspires other to join, charms others to work. Whereas at the end, my friend’s side of strengths are I make friends very easily, I love people, thrives on compliments, doesn’t hold any grudges for anyone, apologizes quickly, seems exiting to others, is always envied by others, prevents dull moments and last but not the least likes spontaneous activities.
Honestly speaking this is actually me but too some extent I take my one or two strengths as my possible weaknesses and I can try to move from one section to the other one in few aspects. My weaknesses make me Choleric ??? Powerful which I think is the worst of all. And the weakness on my emotional side are I am very bossy, I am very impatient, very quick tempered, cant relax, too impetuous, enjoys controversies and arguments, won’t give up when losing ??? could be anywhere any point of time (that is actually scary! , come on too strong for others, inflexible, is not complimentary, dislikes tears and emotions which is not true about me, I am unsympathetic too some extent yes. At work I have little tolerance for mistakes, doesn’t analyze details properly, bored by trivia, may make rash decisions but not always, may be rude an tactless, manipulates people, demanding of others, work may become my god, end justifies the means and demands loyalty in the ranks.
The friends part weaknesses are I always tend to use people, dominate others, decides what is right or wrong for others, knows everything, can do everything better, I am too independent, I am possessive about my mates and friends, I find it hard to say “sorry” which is very correct and last but not the least I might be right but unpopular. In the end, all I feel is the weaknesses are very scary for me and I badly need to improve myself in few areas, this was 98% accurate about myself but we learn time to time so I feel necessary and bound to try and overcome my weaknesses which happen to be very powerful and controlling.
Answer- 4 After completing the reading 2. 9,2. 10 and 2. 11 by myself and feed back taken from others, there can be seen a little bit variation in the results achieved. There is no difference in the overall rating of servant leadership questionnaire. But if we thoroughly go in the SOLA instrument a slight variation can be seen in the self rating and rating given by others. There are some points where I feel that I agree by those and others don’t feel the same way, like I don’t value differences in race culture and ethnicity and I don’t promote myself but feedback from others is opposite to that (what I agree for myself).
There are some points where I agree but feedback from others shows that I strongly agree for those points, that is, I possess these styles like I keep open mind on issues, maintain high ethical standards, put needs of others ahead of myself, am respected by the people in the. And like this, there are some others issues also where I could not decide but others are fully agreeing o behalf of me , some issues where I disagree but others feels that I possess those styles. In leadership
Behaviour analysis also my self rating for style effectiveness is more than others rating by 10. And in the same way in Personality profile I rated my self as perfect, and rating from others rated me as popular. By exercising the DISC model I categorise my self as influential leader. It tells that I am fast paced, energetic. My basic motivations are recognition and approval. My desires include going for prestigious life style, having friendly relationship with others, getting opportunities to help others, getting chances to verbalise ideas, and offer rewards to risks.
And I need to learn that how to manage time, importance of dead line, and too much optimism can be dangerous for me, being responsible, improving listening. I have good network of contacts, like people and talking, am good in promoting ideas, communicate well, generate enthusiasm, and entertain people. My focus is people oriented, management style is democratic, and my fear is rejection. Answer – 5 So it can be seen from these results, that self-rating and others rating, for my styles, varies in some issues.
It varies from one style to other depending upon the situation. That’s why there is a little variation in the results. I show flexibility and adaptability in switching over to different styles of the leadership so as to cope to the situation in the best way, that depends on the factors like time availability, type of the members in the team (whether active or passive), knowledge of team members, their experience and many other factors. Difference in the rating show that I have behaved in different manner to different people from time to time.
Sometimes I behaved in authoritarian style, the other time I behaved in participative style or entrepreneurial style to the same person, which resulted in the difference in self rating and rating by others. And my personal style inventory is that I am extrovert, sensor, thinker and perceiver. I am accustomed to culture, people, and things surrounding me, make decisions congruent with expectations and demands, socially free, outgoing, interested in people and different varieties. Being a sensor, I am more inclined towards concrete, factual statements, structured and tangible things, take decision very cautiously.
As I am a feeler I make judgements about life, people, occurrences, and things based on empathy, warmth, a personal values. As a consequence, feelers are always more interested in people and feelings than in impersonal logic, analysis and things and in conciliation and harmony more than being on top or achieving interpersonal goals. The feeler always gets on well with people. And my typology is ENFP which shows that I am warmly, enthusiastic about the work I do, high spirited, ingenious and imaginative.
I am able to do almost everything that interests me, I have quick solution for any difficulty and ready to help anyone with a problem. I often rely on my ability to improvise instead of preparing in advance. I can usually find compelling reasons for anything I want. Answer 6 Organisations Culture Every organization has its own unique culture. Organizational culture can be “described as the personality of an organization, or simply as “how things are done around here. ” It guides how employees think, act, and feel. ” (Hansen, n. d. , para. 2) Organization culture is a key aspect to the organization’s success or failure.
Organizational culture “shapes the way people act and interact and strongly influences how things get done. ” (Adeyoyin, 2006, para. 1) The organizational culture may be shaped and moulded through years of perceptions and views. The culture is very difficult to change. Just about every possible factor within the organization in some way moulds the culture. From inside factors such as job benefits to outside factors like the surrounding environment, everything is a possible factor in an organizational culture. These factors may also be described as “artifacts. Artifacts are the “tangible aspects of an organization that people hear, see, or feel; management style, the way in which managers behave and exercise leadership and authority; organizational behaviour, the way in which people act and interact in the organization, the structure of the organization, the process and systems used in the organization; and, organizational climate, the working atmosphere of the organization. ” (Hansen R. , 2008) These factors that shape an organization culture often seem to evolve naturally among subordinates in an organization.
It is vital that the leader know how to manage these factors effectively to ensure a healthy organizational culture. Also, Ethics followed in the organisation, whether the organisation is socially responsible or not, how is the reporting structure in the organisation. The issues of ethics and moral leadership might have a great impact on my leadership style. (Schriesheim, Chester A. , 1982) Ethics involve ones morals and values. Individuals having different values can perceive the problem in different way and come up with different solutions.
This results in ethical dilemma in the organisation and in the team members also or sometimes result in disagreement also. Whether my decision is social responsible or not, it might also impact my leadership style. If it is not socially responsible then it can result in conflict of interest among me and my team members which will pressurize me to change my decision hence my style. Organisation structure and availability of time might impact my style. For instance, if my boss has authoritarian style then I would tend to behave in the same style with my team members and subordinates if the time available for getting the work done is less.
Whether my goals are personalised or social will also have an impact on my style. Personalised goal will be more inclined to Authoritarian style. Knowledge and experience will also have an impact on my style whether it is my knowledge/experience or my team members’ knowledge and experience. (Newstrom, John W. & Davis, Keith, 1993) National Culture People from different cultures develop certain patterns of life, philosophy and value systems, which influence their behavior and leadership styles.
Business experience abroad has shown how widely these leadership styles vary from country to country, and from culture to culture (Trompenaars, 1993). In order to lead effectively in another culture, a leader must understand the social values, customs, norms, leadership behavior and work-related cultural values of the host country’s workforce (Fatehi, 1996). Cultural differences influence leadership styles, norms, role expectations, and traditions governing the relationship among various members of society. These are strong determinants of effective leadership behavior in a society (Fatehi, 1996).
Fatehi argues that what constitutes a good leader in one culture may not constitute a good leader in other cultures. He stated that in the United States of America, for example, people would prefer democratic leaders who seek input from subordinates before making decisions. In other cultures, such would be regarded as incompetence or lack of knowledge on the part of the leader. He emphasizes that these other cultures might prefer a leader who takes charge of the situation without consulting subordinates prior to decision-making.
Besides having technical expertise, international managers must possess the ability to organize, and lead a workforce of diverse cultures (Fatehi, 1996). A study by the Graduate School in UTS, examined the effects of organisational culture and leadership styles on job satisfaction and organisational commitment in samples of Hong Kong and Australian managers. Statistically significant differences between the two samples were found for measures of innovative and supportive organizational cultures, job satisfaction and organizational commitment, with the Australian sample having higher mean scores on all these variables.
However, differences between the two samples for job satisfaction and commitment were removed after statistically controlling for organizational culture, leadership and respondents’ demographic characteristics. For the combined samples, innovative and supportive cultures, and a consideration leadership style, had positive effects on both job satisfaction and commitment, with the effects of an innovative culture on satisfaction and commitment, and the effect of a consideration leadership style on commitment, being stronger in the Australian sample.
Also, an “initiating Structure” leadership style had a negative effect on job satisfaction for the combined sample. Participants’ level of education was found to have a slight negative effect on satisfaction, and a slight positive effect on commitment. National culture was found to moderate the effect of respondents’ age on satisfaction, with the effect being more positive amongst Hong Kong managers. (UTS Research, Graduate School, 2008) Answer 7 1. “Great Man” Theories: Great Man theories assume that the capacity for leadership is inherent ??? that great leaders are born, not made.
These theories often portray great leaders as heroic, mythic, and destined to rise to leadership when needed. The term “Great Man” was used because, at the time, leadership was thought of primarily as a male quality, especially in terms of military leadership. 2. Trait Theories: Similar in some ways to “Great Man” theories, trait theory assumes that people inherit certain qualities and traits that make them better suited to leadership. Trait theories often identify particular personality or behavioral characteristics shared by leaders.
It was believed that through this approach critical leadership traits could be isolated and that people with such traits could then be recruited, selected, and installed into leadership positions. This approach was common in the military and is still used as a set of criteria to select candidates for commissions. (Shivers-Blackwell, Sheryl, 2008) The problem with the trait approach lies in the fact that almost as many traits as studies undertaken were identified. After several years of such research, it became apparent that no consistent traits could be identified.
Although some traits were found in a considerable number of studies, the results were generally inconclusive. Some leaders might have possessed certain traits but the absence of them did not necessarily mean that the person was not a leader. Although there was little consistency in the results of the various trait studies, however, some traits did appear more frequently than others, including: technical skill, friendliness, task motivation, application to task, group task supportiveness, social skill, emotional control, administrative skill, general charisma, and intelligence.
Of these, the most widely explored has tended to be “charisma”. The table below lists the main leadership traits and skills identified by Stogdill in 1974. TraitsSkills ???Adaptable to situations ???Alert to social environment ???Ambitious and achievement-orientated ???Assertive ???Cooperative ???Decisive ???Dependable ???Dominant (desire to influence others) ???Energetic (high activity level) ???Persistent ???Self-confident ???Tolerant of stress ???Willing to assume responsibility ???Clever (intelligent) ???Conceptually skilled ???Creative ???Diplomatic and tactful ???Fluent in speaking ???Knowledgeable about group task Organised (administrative ability) ???Persuasive ???Socially skilled 3. Contingency Theories: Contingency theories of leadership focus on particular variables related to the environment that might determine which particular style of leadership is best suited for the situation. According to this theory, no leadership style is best in all situations. Success depends upon a number of variables, including the leadership style, qualities of the followers, and aspects of the situation. 4. Situational Theories: Situational theories propose that leaders choose the best course of action based upon situational variable.
Different styles of leadership may be more appropriate for certain types of decision-making. 5. Behavioral Theories: Behavioral theories of leadership are based upon the belief that great leaders are made, not born. Rooted in behaviorism, this leadership theory focuses on the actions of leaders, not on mental qualities or internal states. According to this theory, people can learn to become leaders through teaching and observation. Behavioral theories of leadership do not seek inborn traits or capabilities. Rather, they look at what leaders actually do.
If success can be defined in terms of describable actions, then it should be relatively easy for other people to act in the same way. This is easier to teach and learn then to adopt the more ephemeral ‘traits’ or ‘capabilities’. Behavioral is a big leap from Trait Theory, in that it assumes that leadership capability can be learned, rather than being inherent. This opens the floodgates to leadership development, as opposed to simple psychometric assessment that sorts those with leadership potential from those who will never have the chance. A behavioral theory is relatively easy to develop, as you simply assess both leadership success and the ctions of leaders. With a large enough study, you can then correlate statistically significant behaviors with success. You can also identify behaviors which contribute to failure, thus adding a second layer of understanding. (Zhang Z. , Tsui A. , Wang H. , Xin K. , (n. d. ), 2008) I relate myself to the this theory as I believe life is a constant learning process till death, so leaders can be made they are not born and during the 360 degrees analysis my mates, colleagues, my boss also agreed with me when I discussed this theory with them. 6.
Participative Theories: Participative leadership theories suggest that the ideal leadership style is one that takes the input of others into account. These leaders encourage participation and contributions from group members and help group members feel more relevant and committed to the decision-making process. In participative theories, however, the leader retains the right to allow the input of others. Along with the behavioral theory I also relate myself with the participative theory. Leader is a mix of everything to be a good leader one has to change the model or theory of approach time to time. 7.
Management Theories: Management theories (also known as “Transactional theories”) focus on the role of supervision, organization, and group performance. These theories base leadership on a system of reward and punishment. Managerial theories are often used in business; when employees are successful, they are rewarded; when they fail, they are reprimanded or punished. 8. Relationship Theories: Relationship theories (also known as “Transformational theories”) focus upon the connections formed between leaders and followers. These leaders motivate and inspire people by helping group members see the importance and higher good of the task.
Transformational leaders are focused on the performance of group members, but also want each person to fulfill his or her potential. These leaders often have high ethical and moral standards. Although, not all the theories are mentioned in the unit, but through my research I came across these different leadership theories and models which I felt compulsive to put in my research as it does relate to my point of view. (PsychologyAbout, 2008) (ManagementLessons, 2008) Note: This is also given in the 360 degree analysis in the quiz reading 2. 10 in Study Guide. Conclusion:
After discussing some of the theories/ models of leadership such as trait theory, attribunal theory, behavioural theory etc and after comparing my styles of leadership with these theories and models I can conclude that there is no one best or most effective leadership style. As effectiveness of particular style may be different depending upon the condition, situation and many more factors as discussed above. (Dubrin, 2006) Most effective leaders appear to exhibit a degree of versatility and flexibility that enables them to adapt their behaviour to the changing and contradictory demands made on them.
Most successful leaders typically possess right blend of task and relationship orientation. Also, I went through the exercises given in the book and study guide and have taken feedback of my leadership style from my colleagues and friends and data collected and attached in the Appendix. List of References: 1. (StudyGuide, 2008) StudyGuide, Leading and Managing People, Graduate College of Management, Southern Cross University, 2008. 2. (Dubrin, A. , 2006) Dubrin, A. , Dalgish, C. & Miller, P. 2006, Leadership: 2nd Asia ??? Pacific Edition, John Wiley and Sons, Milton. . (Hemphill and Coons, 1957, p. 7) Leader Behavior: Its Description and Measurement JK Hemphill, AE Coons, RM Stogdill, AE Coons – 1957 – Columbus, Ohio: Ohio State Univ. , Bureau of Business Research 4. (Hofstede, Geert, 1977) Hofstede, Geert (1977). Culture and Organizations: Software of the Mind new York: McGraw-Hill. 5. (Lewin, K. , LIippit, R. and White, R. K. , 1939) Lewin, K. , LIippit, R. and White, R. K. (1939). “Patterns of aggressive behavior in experimentally created social climates. ” Journal of Social Psychology, 10, 271-301 6. (Newstrom, John W. Davis, Keith, 1993) Newstrom, John W. & Davis, Keith (1993). Organizational Behavior – Human Behavior at Work. New York: McGraw-Hill. 7. (Schriesheim, Chester A. , 1982) Schriesheim, Chester A. The Great High Consideration- High Initiating Structure Leadership Myth: Evidence on its Generalizability. The Journal of Social Psychology, April 1982, 116, pp. 221-228. 8. (Hansen R. , 2008) Hansen R. Ph. D. , (n. d. ) Uncovering a Company’s Corporate Culture is a Critical Task for Job-Seekers, Retrieved online October 5, 2008 via: 9. (Shivers-Blackwell, Sheryl, 2008)
Shivers-Blackwell, Sheryl. The influence of perceptions of organizational structure & culture on leadership role requirements: the moderating impact of locus of control & self-monitoring. In Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 12, p27(23). Retrieved October 8, 2008, from InfoTrac OneFile via Thomson Gale: 10. (Zhang Z. , Tsui A. , Wang H. , Xin K. , (n. d. ), 2008) Zhang Z. , Tsui A. , Wang H. , Xin K. , (n. d. ), Association between Leadership and Organizational Culture, Retrieved online October 6, 2008 via: 11. (Fatehi, 1996)
International Management: A Cross-cultural and Functional Perspective K Fatehi – 1996 – Prentice Hall 12. (Trompenaars, 1993) Riding the Waves of Culture: Understanding Cultural Diversity in Business A Trompenaars – 1993 – Nicholas Brealey 13. (UTS Research, Graduate School, 2008) Available at URL: viewed on 10th October 2008 14. (PsychologyAbout, 2008) Available at URL: viewed on 10th October 2008 15. (ManagementLessons, 2008) Available at URL: viewed on 11th October 2008 Appendix: Section A Self Evaluation Section B 360 degree analysis by: 1. Myself 2. Boss 3. Workmate 4. Classmate 5. Room Partner