Technology and The Crusades Assignment

Technology and The Crusades Assignment Words: 1304

Many people consider the Crusades as wars of bloodless, greed, and power. War can be described as an escalated conflict, most commonly over money or other resources. The outcome of war is usually the advancement of one society due to its newly acquired resources or knowledge. If one were to look at the Crusades, and their original purpose, which was to assist Constantinople and free the Holy Land from Muslim control, then one may make the conclusion that the Crusades failed.

Although the Christians did not win over the Holy Land, Europe as a whole benefited irately from the revival of East to West trade, and new inventions and Innovations that arose during the time of the Crusades. Before the Crusades, the average Europeans idea of medicine was vague, or nonexistent. Europeans believed that there were four bodily fluids; black bile, yellow bile, phlegm, and blood. An unbalanced bodily fluid could result in a change of a person’s personality or health, according to doctors at the time. Therefore, unsanitary practices such as using leeches to drain the blood from someone were common.

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Meanwhile, Muslims had a premium for cleanliness and dietary regime. Daily prayer coincided with the cleansing of the body, which happened five times per day. This resulted in advancements in water systems and engineering as well. Muslims combined knowledge of other sciences, philosophy, and metaphysics with their medical skills. They had a general idea of how to live a healthy life, which had been provided by the prophet Muhammad. After the Europeans began to come into regular contact with the Eastern world, their medical knowledge greatly expanded.

There were many new innovations, and Europeans began to pursue the study of the anatomy after imbibing what they already knew with what the Muslims had discovered. Concepts that had previously been foreign to Europeans were introduced after coming in contact with Eastern medicine, such as acupuncture, pressure points, and veins. The Crusades helped to greatly Improve Rupee’s medical field. Leaving to Join a crusade promised the average farmer an escape from his responsibilities, redemption In God’s eyes, and a chance to make money.

With everyone off in the East on expeditions, there were less people around to farm and harvest crops. People looked or an easier way to get things done. The widespread use of the heavy plow with iron Coulter and plowshare and moldboard allowed cultivation of the fertile heavy clay lands of northern Europe. The Invention of the horse collar and horseshoes made the replacement of oxen with horses for plowing and transport possible. Underlying all these innovations were improvements in mining and metallurgy that increased supplies and reduced the cost of iron.

The period of time around the First Crusade also witnessed the widespread use of watermills and vertical post windmills, not only or grinding grain but for the production of iron, textiles, paper, and beer. The expansion of agricultural production encouraged and made possible the growth of towns, and Increased trade. Flourishing textile Industries arose In northern Italy. Region depended of wool that came from another region. During the thirteenth century the growth of international trade led to banking houses emerging in Italy which developed instruments of financial exchange.

New inventions that sprung forth during the Crusades had long lasting effects on all of Europe, and virtually the entire known world at the time. The Crusades lasted 174 years. Although only twenty-four of those years were spent in actual combat, the Middle Ages are known as some of the most violent times in history. Inventions and innovations in weaponry and warfare helped both the Christians and the Muslims. In the end, both sides learned from their experiences in war, thus many new inventions emerged, including the lance, the longbow, the crossbow, the flail, full-body armor, and chainman.

There were many other inventions changed the way that battles were fought, and continue to be used in the modern world of war today. Gunpowder, for example, is an obvious discovery that contributed to the later invention of cannons, which changed the way battles were fought both on the land and at sea. Siege weapons were also invented and improved upon following the Crusades. The blueprints for these incredibly powerful weapons were brought back to Europe and modified in order to meet the challenges faced throughout the Crusades.

Many of the technologies that arose during the Crusades has affected the way that we live today. Perhaps one of the areas that saw the most impressive developments was the nautical industry. From navigation to steering and power, everything about the way boats and sailors worked together was changed, creating the Age of Exploration. Important nautical inventions include the compass, traverse boards, astrolabes, cross-staffs, oars, and rudders. New farming technology enabled the people of the Middle Ages to increase their food production, helping to feed a growing population.

The changes to these farming processes helped to save time, produce more food and better crops. These inventions undoubtedly helped to contribute to the modern agricultural and food production techniques that we see today. The wheelbarrow is perhaps an item that we take for granted today, but during the Crusades it was an impressive and triumphant invention that dramatically changed the process of farming and production, as citizens and workers could move heavier loads much more quickly. Timekeeping was a concept that was vastly improved upon throughout the Crusades.

New fighting techniques which involved strict schedules were put in place during the Crusades with help from the first major timekeeping invention; the hourglass, which was used to measure time while at sea s well as on the land. The minute glass was also developed during this time. The sundial was another simple yet highly effective timekeeping device that was popularized during the Crusades. Much later into the Middle Ages was the invention of the clock, which provided a much more accurate sense of time keeping, order and routine.

The mechanical clock is a masterpiece of ingenuity and invention, and it still plays an incredibly important part in modern life. To begin with these early mechanical clock struck only at the hour, and did not include hands. Besides that, here were a number of general inventions that dramatically changed the shape of society and how we live today. Perhaps one of the most important and revolutionary limited to those who could write; it was now accessible to everyone. Although paper had been invented in China, it was altered to be made suitable for the printing press.

Europe adapted this invention from being in contact with the Eastern world during the Crusades. The spinning wheel may not have necessarily been invented during the Crusades, but its dramatic increase in use can be attributed to the civilians and other workers of the time. Weighing scales are also another invention from the Crusades that perhaps we take for granted in the modern age. Weighing scales are believed to have been invented in 1366, after the Crusades, but using ideas of balance adapted from Asia and the Middle East, and these scales could be used to improve trade and cooking, as well as other things.

Quarantine may not be an invention as such, but it is an important concept that we use in modern medicine that came from Islamic health ideas about the spread of germs through air. In conclusion, technology that was developed from the Crusades has helped improve our society today in unimaginable ways, and we certainly would not be where we are today without the advanced ideas the Europe adapted from the Middle East and Asia during the Crusades.

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