The French Revolution that took place from 1789 to 1799 was a crucial period in the history of French, European and Western Civilizations. The uprising that brought the regime of King Louis XVI to its end is known as the French Revolution. This was the phase, when absolute monarchy was overthrown and Republicanism took its place. During the French Revolution, the Roman Catholic Church also underwent a radical restructuring. The First Republic fell to a coup d’etat. A coup d’Etat is the sudden overthrow of the ruling government through unconstitutional means.
The part of the state establishment overthrows the government and replaces just the high-level figures. After the fall of the First Republic, France oscillated among Republic, Empire and Monarchy. The French Revolution was a crucial turning point in the history of Western democracy. From the age of absolutism and aristocracy. It brought the transformation from the age of absolutism and aristocracy. The French Revolution brought the age of the citizenry as the dominant political force. French Revolution launched the slogan “Liberte, egalite, fraternite, ou la mort! meaning “Liberty, equality, fraternity, or death! “. This slogan was very popular. It was to popular to such extent that later it became the rallying cry for activists. These activists who promoted democracy and were aggainst oppressive governments could identify with the slogan. CAUSES OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION In 1789, France was facing many economic difficulties. Despite of this fact, it was one of the richest European nations of that time. Louis XVI was very popular at that time and was known as the Estates-General of 1789.
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However, the nobility and many of the king’s ministers were not very popular. There are many factors that led to the political and socioeconomic upheaval of the French Revolution. The ancien regime had an old aristocratic order. The aristocratic order succumbed to the ambitions of the rising bourgeoisie. The attempts at political and economic reform by many groups along with the movements of the wage-earning classes in Paris and the peasantry played a crucial role in the French Revolution.
Many features of the ancien regime have contributed to the beginning of the French Revolution. At that time the economic situation became poor. The national debt also became unmanageable. Both of these were caused aggravated by the grossly inequitable system of taxation. Also, Louis XVI indulged in massive spending. The economic situation also became unstable because of the many wars of the 18th century. There was widespread opposition against royal absolutism. People wanted liberty and republicanism.
The peasants, wage-earners and the bourgeoisie opposed manorialism. There was rise of Enlightenment ideals. Other causes include scarcity of food in the months immediately before the revolution. There was high unemployment and to make the situation worse, the bread prices were high. So, purchasing food also became very difficult. There was opposition of noble privilege. People also resented religious intolerance. Louis XVI failed in dealing with these problems and as a result the French Revolution took place.