How had attack on Pearl Harbor effected the relationship between United States of America and Japan from 1941 until sass’s? By salaries Extended Essay: History How had attack on Pearl Harbor effected the relationship between United States of America and Japan from 1941 until sass’s? Supervisor: Mr.. Randy Pipeline International School of Latvia May 2014 Session Word Count:3240 Abstract. In my Extended Essay I am talking about the effect of the attack on pearl harbor on the US-Japanese relationship. In the beginning of the essay I am talking about the actual attack and the strategy which was used to ACH vive the
Japanese Admiral’s goals. The Actual attack was only the beginning of the whole story , in this case it was a good beginning for Japan , but the action which Was taken against Japan after the attack was very unfortunate for the Japanese nation. After the attack, in 1945 Japan got occupied by the Allies, mostly by US military forces. All the government was strictly controlled by MacArthur who was the Head of the Administration in the “Occupation Comity’. US had supplied Japan with food and a financial aid , military’ officers were patrolling their areas for safety.
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Japan kept on expending into China which led to a war in 1937. () Japan had spent plenty of heir resources for making weapons and making gear for soldiers. “The main point of Japan was to isolate China and win the war in the main land, The “Southern-Operation” was made to assist the EMBER) “From December 1 937 events such as Japanese attack on ISIS Panky and Nanking Massacre made the public of the Western Society to turn sharply against Japan and made them fear the uncontrollable expansion of United States, united Kingdom and France had to provide loan assistance to Republic of China for getting more war machineries and gears for the soldiers.
In 1940 Japan had invaded the French part of China to stop the supplies for caching to the China’s battle ground. United States have stopped providing Japan with air lanes, repairmen parts, machine tools, and the gasoline for the machinery and the aviation gasoline. (The History) Japan did not like this at all and had encountered this as an unfriendly act. “Only oil exports have not stopped because U. S. Government in Washington had made an decision that it would be an extreme step, 4 and also they wanted Japan to depend on the U. AS. S oil . “( EMBER) In early 1941 The pacific Fleet was moved from San Diego to Hawaii, there also was a military buildup in the Philippines to let he Japanese understand that they should not agrees towards IS . S. A. But The Japanese military’ plans were to get the Philippines attacked and under their control. (The History) In the Philippines there was 40,000 man who were trained in the elite forces. (EMBER) Douglas MacArthur had said that U. S. Needs a force ten times that size, but he was not heard. (EMBER) The Japanese invasion had began.
This was the breaking point for the oil export from U. S. To Japan in July 1941 Because of the oil shortage Japan had to invade Dutch East Indies for the great, reach oil territory. On 1 7 August 1941 Roosevelt had earned Japan that U. S. Is ready to take any stations if they would attack the neighboring countries. Japan had a choice of either withdrawal and loosing some of Shines territory which they earned during the military actions or going “all-in” and fighting to the end no matter what. Japan Tried to improve relationship with U. S.
A. And they had written a proposal which stated that they will stop attacks but keep the Chinese territory to them self, U. S. A. Had rejected it. U. S. A. Had proposed for Japan to evacuate the Chinese territory and sign non aggression pacts with all the countries which were attacked by hem and with pacific powers. (The History) The first plan of the attack on the Pearl Harbor had began to build up very early, in 1941. Admiral Scissor Hampton had made a perfection of the plan and then had taken the commanding on the Japan’s Combined Fleet. EMBER) He had moved his plan and succeeded with its approval. The full-scale planning had began in spring 1941 by Captain Minor Agenda and Deputy Chief of Staff,Captain Gamete Chromium. Japanese Admirals had studied the 1 sass British air attack on the Italian fleet at Tyrant. (EMBER) They made a great use of that while planning n attack on Pearl Harbor. Over the next several months pilots were trained and all the equipment was adapted and made to feet the conditions of the “new” battle field. 5 All the best technicians were gathered to work on the modification and the planning of the strategy.
Even thou the preparation was going on the attack plan was yet not approved by the Emperor Horopito until November 5,it only got approver after the third of four conferences. The final authorization by the Emperor was given only on the December 1st. It was finalized by emperor only because of the advises by the Japanese leaders. By late 1941 many observers were share that hostilities by the Japanese side was imminent. By statistics 52% of Americans expected a war between U. S. And Japan, 27% did not expect war and 21% had no opinion on U. S.
Pacific bases were put on alert and multiple times, but the commanders had not expected the attack on pearl harbor to be the firs one “on the list”. First attack was expected to be on the Philippines bases. This mistake was made because the Japanese fleet was moving south and U. S. commanders assumed that Japanese Admirals were not capable of doing several major operations at a time. Those mistakes had led to the miscalculations in the area of the attack. The attack had several aims at a time. At first they were supposed to destroy the important American fleet units, to prevent pacific fleet to interfere in their upcoming actions. As secondary aim they had to “buy time” for the Japan to make their position more powerful and increase its naval strengths before ship building authorized by the 1 940 Vinson-Walsh Act erased any chances of Japans And the last aim Was to deliver a severe blow to American morale, one of which would discourage Americans from committing o a war extending into the western Pacific Ocean. As a maximum morale admonishment Japan chose the U. S. ‘s prestige battle ships as the aim because they were the best ships of any navy at the time. The main object was to conquer the Southeast Asia without any interference from the side.
Striking the Pacific Fleet in Pearl Harbor had two main disadvantages which were that the water in the harbor was shallow and that it was easier to repair the ships, as well as the most of the fleet’s crews would be on the shore or even be evacuated to the Share which meet that not as many oldie’s would be 6 killed. “A great disadvantage was as well the timing of the attack, as it was known to Japanese that all three U. S. Pacific Fleet’s aircraft carriers, Enterprise, Lexington, and Saratoga, were absent from the Pearl Harbor. (EyeWitness) Ironically, the major plan was to destroy as much ships as possible, and they were upset with it. Ironically, the major plan was to destroy as much ships as possible, and they were upset with it, despising this Hampton decided to press ahead. Japanese confidence was so high that their “short” war would make a giant influence on U. S. That they didn’t even consider other targets such as the submarine base, oil tank farms, and especially navy yard, they thought that it could be safely ignored, since the war would be over before the influence of these facilities would be felt.
This was their perspective of action on the battle field. “On November 26, 1941 Japanese task force of six aircraft carriers Khaki, Gaga, S??rayј, Hairyј, SSH??kaka, and Kuaka had departed northern Japan to their position in northwest of Hawaii to launch the aircrafts for the attack on Pearl Harbor. “( Anderson)”They had 408 aircrafts on board. 60 aircrafts were planed to be sent to the attack , 48 were meet to stay for the defensive combat air patrol. The first wave was to be the main attack, when the second wave was to finish what ever was left after the first wave. ( Anderson) “1 SST Group (targets: battleships and aircraft carriers) 50 Making BUN Kate bombers armed with 800 keg (1 760 lb) armor piercing bombs, organized in four sections 40 BUN bombers armed with Type 91 torpedoes, also in four sections 2nd Group – (targets: Ford Island and Wheeler Field) 54 Chichi DAB Oval dive bombers armed with 550 lb (249 keg) general purpose mobs 3rd Group – (targets: aircraft at Ford Island, Hickman Field, Wheeler Field, Barber’s Point, Kankakee) 7 45 Mediumistic AM Eke fighters for air first wave carried most of the weapons to attack the biggest ships, mainly specially adapted Type 91 aerial torpedoes which were designed with an anti-roll mechanism and a rudder extension. ??Encyclopedia )The Pilots were ordered to hit the high value targets first such as battle ships and aircraft carriers or, if these Were not present, any other high value ships. Dive bombers were to attack ground targets.
Setters were ordered to destroy as many aircrafts which were parked, as possible to ensure they did not get into air and attack the bombers in the first wave. When the fighters fuel was low they had to return to the carriers, refill and then get back to the battle ground. The Attack took place before any formal declaration of war, but this was not Admiral Hammock’s choice. He wanted to start the attack 30 minutes after the Japan would tell the U. S. A. About the war. The Japanese were treeing to uphold the convention of the war while still making it a surprise, but the attack began before the declaration of war. Tokyo had transmitted the 5,000-word edification in two blocks to the Japanese Embassy in Washington, but transcribing the message took long for Japanese ambassador to deliver it in time.
The second attack:l SST Group 54 inns armed with 550 lb (249 keg) and 132 lb (60 keg) general purpose bombs 27 Bins – aircraft and hangars on Kankakee, Ford Island, and Barbers Point 27 inns – hangars and aircraft on Hickman Field 2nd Group (targets: aircraft carriers and cruisers) 81 Dads armed with 550 lb (249 keg) general purpose bombs, in four sections 3rd Group – (targets: aircraft at Ford Island, Hickman Field, Wheeler Field, Barber’s Point, Kankakee) 36 Aims for defense and strafing’ (Encyclopedia) “Ninety minutes after the attack has began it has come to an end. 2,386 Americans died including 48-68 civilians, a further 1,1 39 wounded. Eighteen ships were sunk including five battle ships. (Anderson) The Aftermath 8 “15 Medals of Honor, 51 Navy Crosses, 53 Silver Stars, four Navy and Marine Corps Medals, one Distinguish shed Flying Cross, four Distinguished Service Crosses, one Distinguished Service Medal, and three Bronze Star Medals were awarded to the American servicemen Standard ) The day after the attack, Roosevelt delivered his famous Infamy Speech to a Joint Session of Congress, calling for a formal declaration of war with the Empire of Japan. U. S. A. Declared war hour later. Germany and Italy had declared a war against U. S. A. Due to the tripartite pact. The Tripartite Pact was an earlier agreement between Germany Italy and Japan which was meet to limit the U. S. ‘s intervention in any conflict involving the three nations. The war against Germany and Italy was declared that same day. Britain had declared a war on Japan 9 hours earlier than U. S. A. Did, partially because of the attack on Malay, Singapore and Hong Kong. Winston Churchill promised to declare war as soon as possible after the Japanese attack on United States. “( Barbecue) “Admiral Hard Didactic summed up the Japanese result by saying, “We won a great tactical victory at Pearl Harbor and thereby lost the war. “” (Barbecue )By those words he made a really good conclusion of their attack on U. S. A. Fortunately for Lignite States Fleet aircraft carriers were untouched, otherwise the Pacific Fleet’s ability to conduct offensive operation would be unreal for a year or more.
A major flaw of Japanese strategic thinking was a belief that the ultimate Pacific battle would be fought by battleships, in keeping with the doctrine of Captain Alfred Thayer Amman. As a result, Hampton accounted battleships for a “decisive battle” that never happened. 9 The Occupation The relationship between U. S. A. And Japan was horrible. U. S. Was really surprised by the attack , even though they were waiting for it. With in the first year after the attack on the Pearl Harbor, U. S. Was really strict and was really aggressive towards Japan. ” In 1945 Allies occupied Japan the occupation was led by U. AS. Not as a revenge for the attack that Japanese had performed on he pearl harbor, but to keep the aggressor , Japan, calm and that it could not produce any harm to U.
S. And allies. Japan had surrendered to the Allies on August 14 Smiths) On the same day Emperor Horopito announced that Japan had surrendered ,to the allies, on the radio. This announcement was first ever radio broadcast and the first most of the citizens of Japan had heard his voice. “Mac Arthur arrived in Tokyo on 30 of August and immediately relived laws; No Allied personnel were to assault Japanese people. No allied personnel were to eat the scarce Japanese food. The “Rising Sun” flag was strongly stricter. On September 2 Japan had formally surrendered by signing the Japanese Instrument of Surrender. “( Smiths) “On the 6 of the same month U. S.
President Truman approved all the documentation , and had released a document which was called “US Initial Post-surrender Policy for Smiths) “The main principle of this document was to set two main objectives , which are 1. Eliminate the war potential of Japan, 2. Turn Japan in to a western like nation with a pro-American orientation. “( Smiths) Allied forces , mostly Americans, were imported in to the country to look after the covering nation , and keep the peace and the safety of the people. MacArthur was the head of the Occupation administration and his firs priority was to set up a food distribution network in Japan. Even with the measures that US did millions of people were still starving several years after the surrender. “As Kiowa Kazoo said : “Democracy can not be taught to a starving people. (Steelyard’s which was sent in to Japan was ISIS 92 million in loans. By the end of 1945 ore than 350,000 U. S. Personnel were located on Japan’s grounds. “(Systole) “By June 1950 all of the army units had suffered extensive roof reduction, and 10 their effectiveness was weakened seriously. When North Korea got in to a war with South Korea, elements of the 24 were sent to South Korea to try to stop the massive invasion of the North’s forces. “( Smiths) The Impacts of Occupation Purging of war criminals. While the other reforms took place, different military tribunals also took place. The “International Tribunal for the Far East” were trying Japan’s war criminals and giving a death sentence or an imprisonment.
However, many suspects such as Titus Monsanto, Yogis Kodak and Rich Awakes were tot judged at all. All the Imperial family and the members of Unit 731 including the director Dry. Shirr Sushi got an immunity from being trialed for the war crimes by the General MacArthur. (The History) Politics “Japanese had retained their native government throughout the occupation. The Japanese government authorities were strictly limited at first. Senior figures in the government like Prime Minister effectively served at the pleasure of the occupation authorities before the firs post-war election. The first post-war election was held in 1946 and the Liberal Party’s vice president Yeshiva Gushier became the prime minister of Japan.
In the 1947 elections, anti- Yeshiva forces elf the Liberal Party and established Japan Democratic Party. After a short period of time of administration , Yeshiva returned to the prime ministers chair in 1 948 until 1954. “( Osprey ) Conclusion By the information that was represented above it comes out that the Attack of pearl Harbor was well planed and was a major strategic move for the Japanese military forces. It is also represents how unexpected the attack was and how well the operation was thought through out a short period of time. It as a big hit on the Aqua’s military forces and made them look weaker in the “world’s eyes”. At the time the technology US forces used wasn’t perfect, that also played a role in the 1 1 combat.
The theory in which people tell that US generals knew about the attack was confirmed, but the issue is that the generals didn’t know the exact location where would the Japanese strike. They had couple of location which could be attacked by. Pearl Harbor was not really the location that they though would be attacked. This unexpected attack was horrible for IIS because no one was ready to defend the harbor ND most people were relaxing, sleeping, and on the shore , not on the battleships.