During the era of the sass’s, at the height of the Cold War, McCarthy arose as a result of fear of the spread of communism in the United States. McCarthy, named after Senator Joseph McCarthy, was a term which described the lack of evidence and false accusations used against people who were considered communists. Arthur Miller wrote the Crucible because he wanted to show how the relationship of McCarthy in the sass’s and McCarthy in the witch trials during 1692 because the danger of people who were targeted as witches in the modern era.
McCarthy was during the period of 1950- 1954, where many accused were blacklisted or lost heir Jobs. Most belonged to the Communist Party. The main point about it is that everyone is equal, there is no single person of small groups of people who rule the others. One cause of the fear of communism was the effect of the Korean War. During the three years of this war, more than 33,000 United States troops in combat were killed. The Korean War had major United States politic effects and brought great change to the United States national security policy during the Cold War.
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In September 1950, the war had changed drastically after the United Nations forces went about risky attacks behind enemy lines. President Truman made all his mistakes and decisions in order for these effects to come into place. After the outbreak, in 1950, The National Security Council report was approved by Truman which called for “drastic increases in U. S. Conventional and nuclear strength and in foreign aid programs. ” (Peach, Chester J. , Jar. ) The Korean War was the first armed confrontation of the Cold War and set the standard for many later conflicts.
It created the idea of a proxy war, where the two superpowers would fight in another country, forcing the people in that nation to suffer the bulk of the destruction and death involved in a war between such large nations. The superpowers avoided descending into an all-out war with one another, as well as the mutual use of nuclear weapons. The Korean War impacted the economy of the United States. The cost of the Korean War was less significant than that of World War II, it still changed the structure of the American growth as a result of its financing. Economic Consequences of War) The Korean War boosted GAP growth through government spending, which in turn constrained investment and consumption. (Economic Consequences of War) While axes were raised significantly to finance the war, the Federal Reserve followed an anti-inflationary policy. Though there was a large increase in prices at the outset of the war, price and wage controls ultimately stabilized prices by the end of the war. (Rock Consumption and investment continued to grow after the war, but below the trend rate prior to the war. On January 26, 1951, a price freeze was introduced.
From the onset of the war to the start of the price freeze, prices increased at a rate of 1 1. 1 percent annually. During the period from the price freeze to the end of price intros, prices rose at rate of 2. 1 percent annually. (Rock Overall inflation increased by 5. 3 percent. This inflation growth was much lower than that of World War II, during which wholesale prices increased about 70 percent. While money growth was very high and volatile during World War II, averaging 18 percent between 1940 and 1946, the average money growth rate during the Korean War was 4 percent. Ionian) In response to this growth in intonation, the government implemented price and wage controls. Increases in taxes and new price and wage controls that unstrained private sector consumption and investment affected overall material well-being. In the years after the war, consumption and investment continue to be impacted by war as they did not return to pre-war levels(Economic Consequences of War). The fear of communism led the United States to throw itself into Vietnam, in order to avoid another North Korea.
The Korean War brought the United States and Russia to grow further apart which led to the Cold War. (Peach, Chester J. , Jar. ) The United States and Soviet Union were allies in the Cold War but the United States was ere wary about the Soviet communism, even their relationship was a tense one. This war had lasting effects on the way the United States fought the Cold War. Another cause of fear of communism was the growth of Soviet Military Power. Overall the Soviet Union believed in Communism and this affected the United States because they were allies during the Cold War.
The United States had a very skeptical point of view towards the Soviet Communism which led to a rise of fear in communism in the United States itself. The Soviet Military Doctrine had a lot of components about the soviet military theory. Military doctrine was the military policy of the Communist party of the Soviet Union; as such, it governed the actions of the leadership of the Soviet armed forces in meeting the party’s military requirements. ” (Soviet Military Doctrine) This quote explains what the Soviet Military Doctrine is and how it meets their requirements for their own military.
The reason why they made this doctrine is because they believed that their nation’s military potential might not be realized without a doctrine. The military doctrine was concerned with future war and it is important to know that because the Cold War happened right after. In addition, the spy trial of the Rosenberg contributed to the fear of communism. Julius and Ethel Rosenberg were convicted of helping the soviet union in 1951. Judge Irving R. Kaufman that was holding the case, sentenced the Rosenberg to death after his conclusions.
Both the Rosenberg were members apart of the American Communist Party. “The Rosenberg’ trial has been the subject of legal, political, and historical controversy for nearly half a century. ” (Rosenberg Trial. )This quotation shows how much of the spy trials of the Rosenberg was very controversial for almost half a century. They had two sons, Michael and Robert Improper and they spent most of their lives trying to clear their parents name from being convicted with such a crime. Senator McCarthy and HUSH exploited the fear of communism at home. The red scare was a period of general fear of communism.
In 1917, the first red scare followed the Bolshevik revolution in Russia and World War el. The “Red Scare” is generally the period from about late ass’s to the mid ass’s when congress was concerned with the spread of Communism. It was also the time in which many people in the entertainment industry were brought under pressure from Senator Joseph McCarthy and Congressional investigation of communist infiltration of the entertainment industry. (Burnett, Paul) This cause many entertainers to be blacklisted and forever banished from the entertainment industry.
During the aftermath of World War II and during the Korean War a fear that the Communist were taking over the world. This was the period of the red scare; fear of communism. McCarthy was a g television performer as en was on television many times during the sass’s. Senators and congressmen feared McCarthy wrath. McCarthy was thriving on fear and ignorance so he represented harsh power coming from unconfirmed accusations. McCarthy tactics were intense intimidation, often the threat of prison, suspects were released publicly, careers and reputations were harshly damaged, and no Judgments for corruption.
Senator Joseph McCarthy was a man who had an obsession with everyone he thought was a communist and proceed to make their life hell on earth. The term McCarthy is derived from Senator McCarthy himself, and means the use of unfair accusations in the name of crushing political disloyalty. (McCarthy)This term is used to persecute people and to commit character assassination. The House Un-American Activities Committee (HIJACK), the committee in the House of Representatives also exploited fear and ignorance by using their own tactics.
HUSH was established in 1938 and is a committee of United States House of Representatives that investigated, in the early years of the Cold War, allegations of communist activity in the United States. “HUSH represented the last gasp of the Red scares. ” (HUSH (House Un-American Activities Committee). ) This quote states that the HUSH was also involved in the Red scares. The Cold War had important geopolitical implications in the late sass and early sass. To the United States law, the legacy of the Red scares can be identified in various amount of ways, especially in today’s society.
There is “a greater interest in civil liberties, a decline of Congress’s role as a forum for interrogating private citizens; federal reform that has curtailed the power of the FBI; and a 1990 reform of immigration law that removed anarchism and Communism as grounds for deportation. ” Some tactics the committee used were calling citizens to testify in any high-profile hearings before Congress and they also flourish its serve power and used it as their own weapon. HUSH surprising tactics led to fear, distrust, and repression. The HUSH made an attack upon the Hollywood Ten by deciding to conduct hearings on communist influence in 1947. During the hearings, which ran from 28 October to 30 October 1947, ten witnesses refused to answer the committee’s famous question: “Are you now or have you ever been a member of the Communist party? “” This quote is showing what happened during these hearings between HUSH and the Hollywood Ten and the kinds of question that were asked. (HUSH (House Un- American Activities Committee))Thomas ruled that introductory statements from most f the unfriendly witnesses were inadmissible because they were not pertinent to the inquiry.
These attacked the committee and its right to conduct hearings into the political beliefs of individual citizens and their personal, private and public relationships. The unfriendly witnesses, who came to be known as the Hollywood Ten, refused to answer committee questions about their alleged membership in the Communist Party, citing protection under the guarantees of the First Amendment. Eventually, they were convicted of contempt of Congress and imprisoned for periods ranging from six months to a year. Upon their release from prison all were lackluster.
Barrett Breech, the eleventh unfriendly witness, testified before the Committee, denied he had ever been a Communist and fled the country immediately after his appearance. Though they established a blacklist, promoted the production to anti-Communist tills and created a climate to political tear in Hollywood, the 1947 HUSH hearings revealed very little Communist influence in the content of Hollywood movies; the announced purpose of the investigation. The 1951-52 HUSH hearings, under the chairmanship of John Wood, changed the focus to the prestige, position and money that the Communist Party acquired in Hollywood.
This change in strategy came at the suggestion of Hijack’s research director Raphael Nixon. (Richard Schwartz) In these mass hearings where the HUSH called 90 witnesses in 1951 and almost all of them well known figures. People who had past Communist affiliations were compelled not only to testify about their own activities but also to “name names” of others who had also participated. For example, Martin Berkeley, who was a screenwriter identified 162 people as past members of the Communist Party. (Richard Schwartz) Many witnesses were willing to discuss their own activities but refused to name names.
However, after the Supreme Court ruled that individuals could not invoke the Fifth Amendment if they had already testified about themselves, witnesses had to choose between explaining their own past actions and being compelled to implicate other people. Thus a witness’s price for using a committee hearing as a forum for defending his or her views was either to inform on friends and colleagues or face a Jail sentence. Otherwise witnesses had to invoke the Fifth Amendment from the outset and thereby lose the opportunity to make their case for themselves. Fifth Amendment Communists,” as Senator Joseph McCarthy labeled them, were routinely denied employment within the entertainment industry. (Richard Schwartz) Among those who refused to name names were Playwright and screenwriter Lillian Hellman, writer-producer Carl Foreman, director Robert Rosen, actor Jose Prefer and playwright Arthur Miller who, because he did not invoke a constitutional right, was cited for contempt of Congress, fined five hundred dollars, and given a thirty-day suspended Jail sentence. Richard Schwartz) Like Hollywood Ten member Edward Daytime, Rosen and Cob later reversed their position and named names before the Committee. Among those operating with the Committee were actor Larry Parks, director Elli Kane and screenwriters Richard Collins and Bud Schuler. Blacklisted actor John Garfield also attempted to cooperate with the Committee, but since he had not been a member of the Party he had no names to name, and was therefore unable to clear himself through a ritual act of contrition. He died from a heart attack believed to have been brought on from the experience. Richard Schwartz) Hijack’s 1952 and 1953 annual reports released 212 names of individuals in the movie industry named by cooperative “friendly” witnesses as having been Communists. Evidence suggests that in having witnesses name their associates in Communist-supported activities HUSH was intentionally trying to create a blacklist by introducing the names into the public record. Whether or not this was the case, the HUSH listings functioned like a blacklist, as all 212 lost their livelihood in Hollywood by having their contracts either canceled, bought up or not renewed.
Once without a contract, they were unable to get new work in the Hollywood studios under their own names for several years unless they publicly repented and gained “clearance. ” (Richard Schwartz) The impact of Senator McCarthy and HUSH on American society during this period was that Joseph McCarthy had on American society was to make it paranoid about Communism and American-communists. He put many people on trial and accused them of being Communists. Joseph McCarthy) 67 US Senators censured McCarthy. Communist Americans and others who disagree with the majority, continue to live in the US.
McCarthy attempt to drive out people who didn’t agree with him failed miserably. After the Second World War, the Red Scare was very common throughout America. The Cold War had started between America and Russia and the tension teen the two superpowers wasn’t helped by the fact that they were ruled in completely different ways. America was a capitalist country and Russia was a communist country. There were certain events throughout the rest of the world that increased fear of communism in America almost to the point of mass hysteria.
Senator Joseph McCarthy was able to exploit these fears to win himself power. The Red Scare existed long before McCarthy came along. Americans were already terrified of America being taken over by communists. Joseph McCarthy) American society was a lot more people were guarded towards their daily life because they ere afraid they would be turned in for doing anything “UN-American”. They were also paranoid because of this. People became very suspicious of other people’s actions because they thought they were communists or socialists.
These aren’t positive impacts on the United States because a lot of innocent people died for being falsely accused. The witch hunt of The Crucible and the witch hunt of the McCarthy era have a great comparison between the two. Arthur Miller wrote The Crucible as a comment about America’s fear of communism in the sass’s because in the late sass’s the nation faced the same thing that was happening. Arthur Miller created moral awareness for society throughout his play. The Crucible and the McCarthy era share the same ideas and have the same thing happening in the United States.
Also, He wrote the play The Crucible in response to the red scare of the sass’s, in which he was was condemned for disrespect & disapproval of the United States Congress for being unsuccessful in naming numerous individuals who had attended meetings with him. In a bid to not only secure his career as a Journalist and playwright and also to alert the American people against the government misinformation & propaganda that were headed their way. The characters in the play are faced with the same tragedies & sentences that befell people during the McCarthy trials.
Arthur Miller’s personal involvement was that he was among the persecuted. He saw McCarthy as a fraud so he decided not to give the court any sort of information and that’s what he did. The parallels between the play and the McCarthy era are racism, human tendencies, and the HIJACK. Since the Crucible was written during the time of McCarthy, the whole play is pretty much a metaphor for it. In the Crucible, people claim that there are witches and are possessed by the Devil. In McCarthy, random people were accused of being communists.
If you didn’t like someone all you had to do was lie and say they were communists. The same was true in the Crucible. One guy in the play, accuses someone of being a witch because he wanted his land. Another accuses even the most noble of citizens of being a witch. The play was designed to poke fun at McCarthy and to show Just how ridiculous it really was. By the end of the play the people begin to realize it has gone to far. This is the same as in McCarthy, his “witch hunt” ended because people lost faith in what he was doing.
The HUSH also relates because the court, in the play, and the HIJACK, in the McCarthy era, both give questionings to those who are accused. “In both situations, people were persecuted based on intimations, and they could only clear their names by accusing others of the same crime. ” (Parallels Between The Crucible and McCarthy Era) This quote is explaining the relation in which both situations have. Judge Detonator can be compared to HUSH because they both intended on doing the same thing. The HUSH was responsible for finding communists and persecuting them, but, first, they needed to hunt them down in order to question them.
The danger of a witch hunt is always possible because they don’t lead to any beneficial aspects, most of the time. The effects of a witch hunt is mostly full off lot of chaos. A condition that would make it likely is people who falsely accuse people when they don’t have any proof or believe lies. The innocent people are likely to be accused because they’re usually the ones who end up accused by not doing anything and then they get in trouble. The likely accusers are the people that don’t have much proof against the person they are accusing. “… Society has not outgrown it’s witch hunting days. Parallels Between The Crucible and McCarthy Era) This quote states that society will still be able to have witch hunt days even in the present because of the way society’s mind set is. A democracy should prevent another witch hunt from taking place in a various amount of ways. One way would is to be very careful with whom they accuse because it could always be false. Another way, is to have proof that the person actually made this crime in order for you not to falsely accuse them. The Crucible by Arthur Miller was written for a specific purpose, due to many aspects that had occurred in our history.