It has been argued that the factory systems developed during the Industrial Revolution are responsible or the modern cities we know today. During the Industrial Revolution, workers came to cities to look for employment in the new factories. Because the industrial system was new, there were no experienced workers, and thus everyone had an opportunity to find employment. Technological advancement followed, which increased overall production. Significance Before the dawn of the Industrial Revolution, most people resided in small, rural communities where their daily existences revolved around farming.
Life for the average person was difficult, as incomes were meager, and malnourishment and disease were common. People produced the bulk of heir own food, clothing, furniture and tools. Most manufacturing was done in homes or small, rural shops, using hand tools or simple machines. The Industrial Revolution vastly transformed the world in virtually all aspects of life. Begun in Britain, it later on spread to the rest of Europe, US and Japan, drastically changing society.
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The revolution in industry brought about a revolution in agriculture by providing machines that increase output and decreased physical labor. Besides this in agriculture, the industrial revolution gave rise to an increased demand for crops, as the population expanded rapidly. Brought advances in technology’, shipping, airplanes, radios, televisions, atomic energy and much more. Industrial revolution has greatly affected the way of living by producing more goods, the elimination of poverty by increasing production.
Increased foreign trade and introduced mass production, moving manufacturing away from handmade goods and cottage industries into large-scale factories Technological innovations occurred rapidly, with improvements to existing technologies and brand new technologies increasing the efficiency of production The modes of transportation increased this enabled products and people to be moved from en area to another. The Industrial Revolution drastically changed society from a traditional, agrarian, and feudal system to an industrialized, capitalist system with social classes based on money earned.
Society became highly industrialized, with mass production to meet large demand of a growing population, which would give rise to new ideologies, such as imperialism, nationalism, communism, and classical liberalism. Role of fossil fuel Ever since the Industrial Revolution took off in the 18th century, vast quantities of fossil fuels have been used to power the economy and deliver unprecedented prosperity to huge numbers of people. For the first time fossil fuels (coal) were used in steam engine, to drain the water out of the coal mines.
Fossil fuels was the great need for energy to run the new technologies invented during the industrial revolution that provided the real opportunity for coal to fill its first role as a dominant worldwide supplier of energy. Around sass, British colonies in North America where producing lots of cotton. Fossil fuels were used as a power source to run the machines which made it work faster and build big factories. Between 1700 and 1870 goods ND people were moved around the British island on a network of roads, water ways and rail ways which were powered by fossil fuels.
Role of steam engine The steam engine was one of the most important technologies of the Industrial Revolution, although steam did not replace water power in importance in Britain until after the Industrial Revolution. The steam engine began to be used in many industrial settings, not just in mining, where the first engines had been used to pump Water from deep workings. Early mills had run successfully with water power, but by using a steam engine a factory could be located anywhere. Transportation was one of those important beneficiaries.
By the early sass, high-pressure steam engines had become compact enough to move beyond the factory, prompting the first steam- powered locomotive to hit the rails in Britain in 1804. For the first time in history, goods were transported over land by something other than the muscle of man or animal. Steam power had brought such great changes to the other industries of Britain that it is not surprising it was also applied to agriculture. Some of the results were successful, such as the steam-powered threshing machine.
A steam engine, called a traction engine, provided the rower; untarnished corn was fed in at the top of the threshing machine, grain poured into sacks at the back, and straw was stacked at the far left. It is estimated that about two thirds of the corn harvest was threshed by machine by 1880. Why Britain A number of factors contributed to Britain’s role as the birthplace of the Industrial Revolution. For one, it had great deposits of coal and iron ore, which proved essential for industrialization.
Additionally, Britain was a politically stable society, as well as the world’s leading colonial power, which meant its colonies could serve as a source for raw materials, as well as a racetrack for manufactured goods. As demand for British goods increased, merchants needed more cost-effective methods of production, which led to the rise of mechanization and the factory system. British society was relatively open, with more scope for individual initiative and social mobility than most other societies Of the world.
There were no internal trade barriers within Britain unlike most European countries. British had strengthening institutions of political liberty. Traditions of free speech and open debate were powerful contributors to uptake of new ideas. The establishment of the Bank of England (1 694), the world’s first central bank enabled entrepreneurs, businessmen and investors to obtain credit on the large scale that was necessary to build factories and install machinery in them.
Britain became one of the leading centers of Rupee’s scientific revolution a)John Kay-??-flying shuttle b)James Harvests—spinning jenny c)Richard Aright—water frame d)Samuel Crampon—spinning mule e)Edmund Cartridge—power loom All of these led to the development of textile factories and agriculture . Britain had several crucial geographical advantages . First as an island economy close to continental Europe. Britain enjoyed low cost sea based trade with all parts of Europe.
Britain had extensive ways for internal trade and enjoyed a high favorable environment for agriculture, with a combination of plentiful rainfall, an ample grow season and good soil. The damp climate proved good for textile production, because it helped to keep the fibers in the material soft and easy to work with. Britain had coal, and with the invention of the steam engine ,coal freed society from energy constraints that had limited the scale of economic production throughout human history. Britain had more colonies than any other nation.
Its colonies gave Britain access to enormous markets and vast amounts of raw materials . They imported raw materials from their colonies. From these raw materials, British companies produced manufactured goods which they sold back to the colonies and to Europe. 2. Arbitration (How and why does economic growth and arbitration go hand in hand) Localization refers too process in which an increasing proportion of a society lives In cities and the suburbs of cities. Historically, it has been closely connected with industrialization.
Industrialization is a process that extensively uses inanimate sources of energy to enhance human radioactivity. Following industrialization, surpluses increased in both agriculture and industry. Larger and larger proportions of a population could live in cities. Economic forces were such that cities became the ideal places to locate factories and their workers. The Industrial Revolution and the modern economic growth that followed had changed the way people live in every fundamental sense.
In Britain first and then elsewhere industrialization meant a shift of people from agricultural activities to industrial activities, giving rise to arbitration. Social mobility, new gender and family roles, a anemographic transition, and specialization of work. Modern economic growth is accompanied first and foremost by arbitration; it is, by rising share Of a nation’s population living in urban areas. Basic reasons economic growth and arbitration go hand in hand Rising agricultural productivity .
As food production per farmer rises ,an economy needs fewer and fewer farmer to feed the overall population food production per farmer rises price falls ,inducing farmers especially their children’s to seek employment in nonfat activities. Once the labor force is no longer engaged in food production, it is trial that the bulk of the population will relocate to cities, drawn by higher wages than in turn reflect their productivity of work in densely settled urban areas. The increased division of labor associated with larger markets makes economizing on communication and transportation costs more important.
This in turn implies an increasing advantage for urban location. An increased literacy rate also accompanies economic development. And it also has an independent effect on arbitration. An increased level of education leads to greater arbitration. If this is a direct, positive, independent determinant of arbitration, it might imply that education alters preferences to make urban areas more attractive. It may increase demand for marketing, financing, and communication, face-to-face contact, making an urban location more important. 3 .
Modern economic growth ‘development (Meaning, effect on/ relationship with social mobility, gender roles, family structure and division Of labor). Mans: A country’s economic growth may be defined as a long term rise in capacity to supply increasingly diverse economic goods to its population, this growing capacity based on advancing technology and the institutional ND ideological adjustments that it demands. Modern economic grog. N/the is characterized by sustained ongoing increases in living standards that can cause dramatic increases in the standard of living within a generation.
First emerged in England. It is not only about more output per person but also ‘change’ Modern economic growth implies that social, institutional and technological changes accompany and facilitate changes in the capacity to supply output The past two centuries, since around 1 800 is termed as the period of modern economic growth. Before then, indeed for thousands of years, there had been ritually no sustained economic growth in the world and only gradual increases in the human population.
In the period of modern economic growth, however both population and per capita income came unstuck, soaring at rates never before seen or even imagined. The global population rose more than six fold in just two centuries, reaching an astounding 6. 1 billion people. The world’s average per capita income rose even faster, increasing by around nine times between 1820 and 2000. In today’s rich countries, the economic growth was even more astounding. The total economic activity in the world rose an astounding forty nine times during the sat 1 80 years.
As of 1820, the biggest gap between the rich and poor- specially, between the world’s leading economy of the day, the United Kingdom, and the world’s poorest region, Africa, was a ratio Of four to one per capita income. By 1998, the gap between the richest economy, the United States and the poorest region, Africa, had widened to twenty to one. Today’s vast inequalities reflect the fact that some parts of the world achieved modern economic growth while others did not. Effect on or relationship with social mobility, gender roles, family structure and division of labor.
Effect on r relationship with social mobility: Modern economic growth has also produced a revolution in social mobility. Established social rankings-such as the fixed hierarchical divisions between peasants and gentry, or within the Indian caste structure, or in the social orders of nobility, priests, merchants, and farmers that characterized many traditional Asian societies-all unravel under the forces of market-based modern economic growth. Gender roles: Traditional societies tend to be strongly differentiated in gender roles, with women almost always getting the short end of the deal.
Traditionally homebound, women live lives of back- reeking labor on the farm, endless walking to collect fuel wood and water, and child rearing. With modern economic growth, this dynamic changes. Women can avail themselves of urban-based employment, leading them ultimately toward social and political empowerment. Family Structure: The changes in living conditions and economic activities lead to new realities in family structure as well. The age of marriage is typically delayed, and sexual relations are transformed, with greater sexual freedom much less directly linked to child rearing.
Fewer generations of family members live under one roof. And crucially, the desired number of children changes remarkably as families move from rural to urban settings. In rural societies, large families are almost always the norm. In urban societies, families choose to have fewer children. Division of labor: the division of labor increases, as people become more and more specialized in their skills. The talents of a poor rural farmer in Africa today, or in Scotland at the time of Adam Smith, are truly marvelous. These farmers typically know how to build their own houses, grow and cook food, tend to animals, and make their own clothing.
They are, therefore, construction workers, terrestrials and agronomists, and apparel manufacturers. They do it all, and their abilities are deeply impressive. 4 . Diffusion of modern economic growth (the three main paths of diffusion) Mans: Modern economic growth took place in Britain because in Britain because of innovation of steam engine and industrial revolution. These things were replicate elsewhere by stimulating the demand of export from Britain’s trading partner, by supplying those trading partner with Britain capital to make investment in infrastructure.
There are three diffusion of modern economic growth which is as follows. The iris, most direct spread of the Industrial Revolution was from Britain to its colonies in North America, Australia, and New Zealand. All three regions are in temperate zones with conditions for farming and other economic activities similar in many ways to those of Britain. It was therefore relatively straightforward to transplant British technologies, food crops, and even legal institutions into these new settings.
A second form of diffusion took place within Europe itself, broadly in a process that ran from Western Europe to Eastern Europe and from Northern Europe to Southern Europe during the nineteenth century. Northwestern Europe started with certain advantages over Eastern and Southern Europe. First, northwestern Europe is on the Atlantic side of the continent, and therefore had benefited more than Eastern Europe from the great explosion of ocean-based trade with the Americas and Asia. Second, northwestern Europe generally had more favorable natural resources, including coal, timber, rivers (for water-powered mills), and rainfall.
Third, northwestern Europe generally benefited from a more benign disease environment, less vulnerable to tropical and subtropical disease like malaria. Forth, the political ND social conditions were more favorable. The third diffusion involved the spread of modern economic growth from Europe Latin America, Africa, and Asia. The process was tumultuous every here,involving the confrontation of an increasingly industrialized and rich Europe with non industrialized, largely rural, and militarily weak societies in other parts of the world. European imperial powers forced Africans to grow cash crops they chose.
Colonial authorities imposed head taxes, compelling Africans to work in mines and on plantations, often hundreds of miles from their families and homes. European investors and governments meandered natural resources, including mineral wealth and vast woodlands in Africa and Asia. Q. 5 Waves Of technological change(spread Of prosperity,Confederate waves) 5. 6 waves 1. Steam Engine 2. Railway and Steel 3. Age of electricity 4. Age of automobiles 5. Age of computer 6. Wave of sustainable energy The new era of modern economic growth was underway. And, markets drove this process.
Technological advance drove this process. The first wave of the industrial revolution was the development of the steam engine and related technologies, including the organization of large scale factory production, new chicanery in the textile and apparel sector, and new techniques to produce steel. A second wave Of technological breakthroughs came in the middle Of the nineteenth century with the rail, and even more notable the telegraph, which offered the first instantaneous telecommunications around the world, a phenomenal breakthrough in the ability to diffuse information on a large scale.
The second technological wave also included ocean steamers, global scale trade, and two huge infrastructure projects: the Suez Canal, completed in 1 869, which significantly shortened the trade time between Europe and India, and the Panama Canal, completed in 1914, which dramatically reduced the trade time between the US eastern seaboard and destinations in the western US, much of Latin America, and East Asia. Epidemics of yellow fever and malaria killed thousands of workers delayed the first attempt to build the canal in the 1 sass. Once scientists understood that mosquitoes were transmitting those killer diseases, the canal builders made a full-fledged effort to control the mosquito breeding alongside the construction of the canal and thereby completed the project in 1914. The third wave of technological advance involved electrification of industry and urban society at the end of the nineteenth century, including edition’s invention of the incandescent bulb and other electronic appliances.
Edison, wasting house, and other championed large power plants that could bring electricity into homes, office buildings, and factories by wire which Was the differing new infrastructure Of the early twentieth century. The development of the internal combustion engine was also critical, as was the pivotal advance in the chemical industry, mainly in Germany, with the new process for taking atmospheric nitrogen and inverting it into ammonia for fertilizer (the Huber- Busch process).
The use of fossil fuel energy to create nitrogen based fertilizer was the breakthrough advance in raising food production in the twentieth century, enabling a great proportion of humanity, though still not all of it, to overcome chronic hunger and the risks of famine that had forever plagued humankind. After the Age of Electricity which is put 1 880 to 1 930 is a fourth wave led in this classification by automobiles and petrochemicals. Plastics and new polymers and new materials industries and much more. One could add, Of course, the age of odder aviation.
Again, the underlying technologies for the automobile date to the end of the 1 9th century, the internal combustion engine which powers automobiles till today. But the economic, dramatic application began in the early years of the 20th century with the Model T. With Henry Ford’s inventions of modern production processes on the factory line. And with the mass production of automobiles which absolutely transformed the way we live, where we live, how we produce and of course, how we trade in the economy. The fifth wave in this classification dates to around 1970 but again with roots hat go back much earlier.
This is the knowledge economy, the age of computers, the great advent first of the huge mainframe computers in the sass and 1 sass, much spurred by World War Two and the immediate aftermath of World War Two. And then the discovery of the transistor at the end Of the sass and the invention Of the integrated circuit which gave rise to the modern computing age, mobile phones and all the rest of industry that has been made possible by Moor’s Law. Moor’s Law is the fact that roughly every 18 to 24 months the number of transistors that can be put onto an integrated circuit has doubled.
This means that the ability to process, to store, to transmit data has roughly doubled, or the cost of doing so has roughly fallen by half every 18 to 24 months. We do that over a period of more than 50 years and we arrive at roughly a billion time improvement in the ability to process, store, and transmit information. The great fifth wave of the information and communications technology driven era. Will there be a sixth wave of technological change? The sixth wave that we really need now, a wave of sustainable technologies.
Ways to produce energy, ways to mobile energy, ways to transport ourselves, and transport goods that take the sieve pressures and the destructive forces off of our ecosystems. This is the great challenge. We’ve had now 250 years of modern economic growth. We’ve had waves of great technological change and we need to enter a new era. A new wave of technology, of sustainable development technologies in the way we live. The way we protect the planet. And at least we can take confidence from the past. And also grab on to some of the great scientific and technological insights that we have at hand.
TO give us hope and confidence, and determination to move forward to that next great wave of endogenous growth. This one based on protecting the planet and achieving sustainable development. Q 6 meaning of the first second and third world and its relevance to economic development. First world After World War II, the world split into two large geopolitical blocs, separating into spheres of communism and capitalism. This led to the Cold War, during which the term First World was often used because of its political, social, and economic relevance.
The term itself was first introduced in the late 1 9405 by the United Nations. Today, the First World is slightly outdated and has no official definition; however, it is generally thought of as the capitalist, industrial, wealthy and developed countries. This definition included most of the countries of North America, Western Europe, Australia and Japan. In contemporary society, the First World is Viewed as countries that have the most advanced economies, the greatest influence, the highest standards of living, and the greatest technology.
Second world Second World refers to the former communist-socialist, industrial states, (formerly the Eastern bloc, the territory and sphere of influence of the Union of Soviet Socialists Republic) today: Russia, Eastern Europe (e. G. , Poland) and some of the Turk States (e. G. Astrakhan) as well as China. Third world The term Third World was originally coined in times of the Cold War to distinguish those nations that are neither aligned with the West (NATO) nor with the East, the Communist bloc.
Today the term is Often used to describe the developing countries of Africa, Asia, Latin America and Oceania. The term Third World includes as well capitalist (e. G. , Venezuela) and communist (e. G. , North Korea) countries, as very rich (e. G. , Saudi Arabia) and very poor (e. G Mali) countries. Relevance in economic development The restoration of trade in the first world did not mean the restoration of a lobar economy. The divisions in the world economy after 1 945 went deeper than currency inconvertibility and trade barriers.
By the end of the World War II, the world had become starkly divided in political terms that mirrored the economic ruptures. These divisions would last for decades and are only now being healed. The second world was the socialist world, the world first forged by Lenin and Stalin in the wake of World War l. The second world remained cut off economically from the first world until the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989 and the end of the Soviet Union in 1991. At its peak, the second world included around thirty countries (depending on the criteria for inclusion), and included about a third of humanity.
The overriding characteristics of the second world were state ownership of the means of production, central planning of production, one-party rule by communist parties, and economic integration within the socialist world (through barter trade) combined with economic separation from the first world. The third world included the rapidly rising number of postcolonial countries. Today we use the term third world simply to mean poor. Earlier on, the third world had a more vivid connotation s a group of countries emerging from imperial domination that chose neither to be part of the capitalist first world nor the socialist second world.
These were the true third- way countries. The ideas at the core of the third world were: “we will develop on our own. We will nurture industry, sometimes through state ownership, sometimes by giving subsidies and protection to private business, but we will do it without foreign multinationals. We will do it without open international trade. We do not trust the outside world. We want to stay nonaligned. The first world countries cannot be our heroes; they were our former colonial powers. The second world leaders are not to be trusted either.