Form of appeasement – allowed Hitler to take over Sutherland in Czechoslovakia if he promised not to invade other countries (Hitler testing waters) it. Stalin felt victimized because Western capitalist powers created an alliance with Hitler – an fascist Germany 2. USSR actions a. Commitment I. To stimulate revolutions in other countries it. Expansionist tendencies threatening – US saw it as aggressive b. Treaty of Brest- Litotes I. USSR prematurely draws out of WWW b/c communists do not fight a war for greedy capitalists, leaving Allied powers stranded I’.
Huge debts owed to allies, which the Soviets refuse to pay c. Soviet-German non-Aggression Pact (1939) I. Allowed Germany to invade Poland (2/3) it. Russia also invaded Germany iii. Led to start of WI What was the role of WI in the origins of the Cold War? US delay in opening second front – Hitler invades Russia June 1941 and US opens second front in December 1942 and does not invade France (C)-day) until June 1944 USSR sees that US is holding out for smaller burden
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USSR left with larger burden – 90:1 death ratio, 1700 cities and 70,000 villages in ruins, 70% of industries and 60% of transportation facilities destroyed; US left with economic boom, 90% increase in industrial output from 1940-44, nuclear monopoly -??+ further resentment by Stalin – supposed ally had left Russia to fight alone US did not realize Russia was so weak -??+ unnecessary fears Soviet Union and not US liberated Eastern Europe from Nazi grip -??+ Stalin chose the fate of Eastern Europe and made it his satellite states US met USSR in Germany -??+ split of Germany into 4 zones and Allied Control Council, which slowed its unification
USSR wants a permanently weakened Germany and reparations, US wants an economically strong Germany and neither gets what it wants because neither liberated Germany on its own US detonates atomic bomb in Hiroshima and Nagasaki without informing Stalin (or anyone) Stalin had wanted a long war so that he could divide up Asia as well and increase his influence Power vacuum in key parts of the world Germany – key power vacuum US and USSR each wants to assert its authority, ideology, etc. And fill security interests US needed markets for the increased industrial output – rebuilding
Germany essential for this USSR wants to ensure its security, pro-Soviet government, spread proletariat revolution (workers of the world unite) Asia – due to Japanese expansionism at end of WI Power vacuum less important as long term cause of Cold War but important over course of Cold War due to massive casualties Korea, Vietnam, and China had real wars Temporary divisions of Korea and Vietnam into northern Soviet zones and Southern Allied zones In China, nationalists and communists cooperated to oust the Japanese, but they required US assistance Mao won Civil War at same time as USSR detonated atomic weapon