A. The king -1789 Lotus -Married to Marie Antoinette (Austria) -Lived in luxury at palace of Versailles -Believed in the “Divine right” of kings (g-d had put him on this earth as his representative on the throne) -Only G-d could remove him from the throne. The people could not remove him. In theory he ruled as absolute power (absolute Monarch) – monarchy in which kings power is unlimited. Legislative – the Estate General (Parliament) had not met since 1614 – lit De Justice – overrule the Parliament Judicial – letter De cachet (a letter that could put a person into prison without a trial -Executive – unlimited executive B. Clergy – first estate -Upper clergy -Lower clergy Upper clergy -e. G.
Archbishops, Abbots Many churchman – took position for advantages -85% of Church’s income used by them -Owned and rented out 1/5 of land of France -Exempt paying taxes and army services History: French Revolution: Social and Economic causes for French Revolution By W-Serpentine -Received tithes from 3rd Estate (1110 of peoples salary) Lower Clergy -e. G. Priests, monks (from 3rd estate) -Poor but dedicated – only received 15% of Church’s income -Critical of Upper Clergy – sympathized with 3rd Estate Therefore Upper clergy – content want status quo to remain Therefore Lower Clergy – wanted to fight, welcomed revolt C.
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Nobles – 2nd estate -Nobles of the Estate -Nobles of the Sword -Nobles of the Robe I)Nobles of the Estate -Lived on their country Estates (owned Land) -Insisted Peasants pay heavy Feudal Dues -Taxes -Service / labor -Share of crops ii)Nobles of the Sword Owned land but most lived in luxury at Palace of Versailles originally wealthy but wasted fortunes and were supported by the state – came from taxes of the 3rd estate.
Highest Position in army and Ana but incompetent and not qualified for these positions. Iii)Nobles of the Robe -Role was to be loyal to the King -Nobles could purchase their positions E. G. Judges in Parliaments of France Therefore Nobles had certain privileges -Exempt from paying taxes -Death sentence did not apply to nobles -Corporal punishment did not apply -Did not have to do military service Got top positions – not qualified -Right to impose heavy dues on peasants N.
B. Nobles content but grievance that they had no political power. Economic Causes By mid sass’s France was bankrupt Why? 1)Expensive wars – France wanted to extend military domination over Europe therefore fought wars against Austria, Britain and the American war of independence, which left France in heavy debt. To survive France had to borrow money and therefore had to raise loans. 2)Extravagance of French court – Especially Marie Antoinette (e. G. Buying 100 dresses a year) )Bad trading conditions – prevented economic progress – internal trade barriers (Stoic) prevented expansion and trade 4) Revocation of edict of Antes – ( Hugeness lived in walled cities to protect them from the Catholics) This revocation of freedom of religion led to exodus of thousands of hugeness (Protestants) and this prevented growth of industry in France. -Those who could pay did not therefore France deprived of income. -Tax Collection – Tax collectors corrupt and often pocketed parts of taxes. They made huge profits but country deprived of income