Unfortunately, most of the countries failed to achieve the targets of “Health for All”. In September 2000, the largest-ever gathering of the heads of States ushered in the New Millennium by 189 countries, was then translated into a roadman setting out goals to be reached by 201 5 (these set goals are called Millennium Development Goals). Because Pakistan is the signatory State of that declaration so government is bound to launch the health related programs for the promotion of health standards. In response of it, the Punjab Government started “Punjab Health Sector Reforms Program”.
Under the commendations of it, numerous reforms were introduced in health department. School Health & Nutrition Program is one of those public interest reforms to promote Primary Health Care in the province. Actually school health is not a totally new concept in health field but it was not paid due heed and importance before, due to which it is not so familiar. To check and monitor school health was one of the duties of the Medical Officer/Doctor (M. O) of the Basic Health Unit (B. H. U. ) as the head of health services and provisions in his locality (Union Council).
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But due to the tight laborious routine of Medical Officer at B. H. U. , it could not be given sufficient time and consideration, so it could not be covered successfully. Millennium Development Goals Directly Related to Health There are eight millennium development goals, out of those three goals are directly related to health. Those are 1. Reduce child mortality (Goal #04) 2. Improve maternal health (Goal # 05) 3. Combat HIVE/AIDs, malaria and other diseases (Goal #06) To achieve the set goals and to launch the declaration of Alma-Ata with some necessary modifications in our country, the Punjab gobo. s committed to provide health care services to all. Besides the health department, Education Department of the Gobo. Of the Punjab has already plan to launch “Punjab School Councils Capacity Building Project” in a phased manner in all districts of the Punjab. The Project aims at ensuring “Qualitative” community participation in improving school environment, facilitating school administration in services delivery and building synergistic partnership amongst the stakeholders.
The sustainability of these basic facilities can only be ensured if local community is involved in developing, approving, implementing and maintaining such small but extremely important schemes. School Health & Nutrition are two independent and full fledge fields of health sector but are inter-related closely at the same time. School health is related to and debates with the health problems of school going kids (03-18 years old) and their disease control mechanism, whereas Nutrition is the food that provides us the requirements to grow, and to perform our day to day matters effectively.
Without nutrition the growth of one’s is impossible. As you all know that whatever we eat and drink has of body as per our age and physic demands. Health is commonly understood as the absence of disease that is detrimental to our odd but it doesn’t give full meaning of health in real. The standard definition is of WHO’s health definition “Health is a state of physical, mental and social wellbeing and is not merely the absence of disease. ” In spite of being one of the fundamental human rights, health still could not give much importance in our country in public sector. Nutrition should ensure the adequate supply of substances (nutrients) needed by the human body to meet its requirements at various stages of growth and development. These are proteins, carbohydrates, Fats, Vitamins, Water, Electrolytes, Minerals and Fiber. ” Nutrition depends on the provision of correct amounts of nutrients. It is an important factor in preserving life, promoting growth, maintaining health and resisting disease. A well nourished child has good growth and development, healthy skin, bright eyes, shining hair, active and alert.
A great deal also depends on his social and economic environment but nutrition plays a major role in good health and increased life span. Essential Components of Primary Health Care Policy: 1. Health Education 2. Nutrition 3. Safe water and sanitation 4. MUCH care 5. Immunization 6. Prevention and control of Diseases 7. Treatment of common diseases 8. Provision of Essential Drugs Stake Holders of the Program: Education and Health departments of district (and lord Punjab) Gobo. Are on the giving end’s whereas public (School going children) are on receiving end in this process of ensuring and improving School Health.
Followings are the major stake holders of the program. 1. School going children 2. Parents 3. Teachers. Components of the Program: There are followings components of the program on which the success of the program is depending. Those are: 1 . School Going Children 2. Organization (Health Facility Centers) Process for the Provision of required facility 5. The assessment and improvement of health education among the community. Pedagogy to provide the facility to stake holders: As we know that there are three stake holders of the SSH & NP e. . Parents, Teachers, and Children (in specific) and the local public (is in general). So there are different methodologies for each stake holder. We discuss in detail according to each stake holder. 1. Parents: Parents in our society are usually uneducated and/or low educated so they are unable to keep themselves, their children & their family members healthy and they onto know how to adopt and why to adopt healthy life style. Much of our day to day illnesses are nothing but actually the result of unhealthy life style I. E. Rehear, worming, depression, dental carries, etc. So, the strategy set for this is to conduct education sessions for educating them about the preventive measures of diseases and to adopt healthy life style. The other strategy is to conduct focused group discussions (Figs) in which the questions of parents regarding their health problem are being under discussion and are answered their questions so that they go to lead a healthy and satisfactory life. Parents’ participation must be ensured in the screening process of their school going children.
As the expected result, their participation in the whole process of screening out their school going children may realize them the importance of health and to adopting preventive measures. Moreover, parents are further informed about the healthy and balanced diet necessary to their children’s growth and health. 2. Teachers: Teachers are rather better segment of the society as compared to parents in a way. They are educated, experienced and have more or less knowledge/information about he problems of school health. Children spend more of their time, (after parents, and home) with their teachers.
The student-teacher relationship is also meaningful in the sense of obedience. So the strategy towards this is to conduct training sessions on screening out the children for teachers and to ensure their participation in this healthy process. To conduct taboos, dramas etc in school for promoting health education for children would also be an effective tool. The other strategy is that the class teacher must learn how to screen out children and how to refer them to the appropriate health facility. Afterwards, teacher will screen out children his / her class in the presence of SSH & NSA.
On the other hand, teacher will be a liaison between Parents and SSH & NSA and between SSH & NSA and children. By applying this way, the participation of all stake-holders in the healthy process may be ensured at maximum. 3. School Going Children: they for whom this program is commenced so that the phenomena of absenteeism, low enrollments and dropouts can be sort out and children would enjoy healthy life, growth and education simultaneously. Children are the future of any country/state and our gobo. Is committed to secure our future.
The strategy towards children is that they would screen out twice a year by SSH & NSA in their schools at least. The SSH & NSA will screen out them by general physical examination in five major areas; 1. Eye Examination: (vision, Glaucoma, Tractors, Swore eye, Squint eye, Traumatic eye etc. ) 2. Dental Examination: (Dental caries, Gingivitis etc. ) 3. E. N. T. Examination: (tonsillitis, Goiters, Hearing disorders etc. ) 4. Skin Examination: (Skin Allergy, Sores, Wounds, Rashes, Anemia, Impetigo etc. ) 5. Personal Hygiene (Daily Brushing, Daily Bathing, Cleanliness of nails, clean clothing etc.
Moreover, to check the temperature, pulse, breathing, tongue and abdomen is also included in general physical examination. After this, the examined / screened out children with any of health problem(s) are referred to the Medical Officer of B. H. U. For treatment purposes where the MO takes necessary actions in this regards. The next strategy is to educate the school going children about the importance of adopting healthy life- style and personal hygiene through class room lectures and assembly addresses. So, they may learn and adopt the way, to keep themselves clean and healthy.
As a result f this whole process, it would be ensured to minimize absenteeism and to maximize enrollments in schools. Levels of Working* 1. Individuals (Social Case Work) 2. Groups (Social Group Work) 3. General Public (Community Development & Organization) Whom to Educate? 1. People in Authority (This included the Key Persons of the society with especial regards to political and economic influences). 2. The family 3. Community leaders (Nazism, Counselor, Mollie / Imam Massed, and / or other influential persons of community). Social Case Work, Social Group Work and Community Development & Organization re the primary methods of Social work. These methods have been discussed briefly and comprehensively in the next pages. Here the writer Just gave to levels of working a professional terminology. So, the reader may get some idea of primary methods of Social Work. 4. Schools (though both public and private schools should be included in SSH & NP, yet at its initial phase only public boys and girls schools have been targeted). 5. Formal Settings 6.
District Governments 7. Voluntary and Gobo. Welfare Agencies Social Work provides help to individuals, groups and communities to solve their social, economic, cultural problems and help them to enhance their capacities to be able to adjust in their social functioning. According to the National Association of Social Workers (2000) “Social Work is the Professional activity of helping individuals, groups and communities to enhance or restore their capacity for social functioning and to create societal conditions favorable to their goals. Social work Profession has some basic methods (Social Case Work, Social Group Work and Community Development) and some secondary methods (Social Action, Social Policy & Administration, and Social Research) as well. The basic methods are used to fulfill the duties of School Health and Nutrition supervisor; moreover, I can truly and carefully say that the School Social Work and Medical Social work are also at peace with each other in this regard. For the further elaboration of this relationship, we discuss these in detail below.
Social Case Work in Relation to SSH As we know that, most of the implementation of Social Case Work is in medical settings where the individuals are given assistance by a Professional Social Case Worker. So that they may lead a satisfactory social life. There are various settings of Social Case Work I. . Medical social work, clinical social work, psychiatric social work, family counseling, school social work etc. Keeping in view the social work and the Job description of school health and nutrition supervisor, we can say that both are same in a way / manner.
Because in SSH & NP school-going children are given attention on individual basis and screen out too. Then the SSH & NSA refer them to the B. H. U. Where the necessary actions are taken by the medical officer I. E. Treatment is given or further referral is made etc. After that to ensure that the children are looked after properly or not and the follow up is done. If we translate this whole process into the language of social work, we can state that it is one of the basic / primary methods of social work that is known as Social Case Work in its specialized field known as School Social Work.