How are they involved in evolution? How do they come about in a species? ) Descent with Modification (modify preexisting structures) Natural Selection (Interaction of individuals/traits with environment). Know some examples (egg. Finch beaks, moths) Conditions necessary for natural selection Evidence for Evolution Be able to explain how each type of evidence contributes to proving the theory of evolution. Biography Fossil Record Comparative Anatomy Comparative Embryology Molecular Biology Which type of evidence provides the strongest support for evolution? Chapter 23: Evolution of Populations In general, you should understand how evolution is operating on the population level. The individual organisms carry the genes that natural election acts upon, but it is the genes of the population (gene pools) that evolve.
Hardy-Weinberg Equation (pa + PC + sq =1 and p + q = 1) Red plant color is dominant in a particular species of wildflower. In a wild population, 250 of the 5000 individual plants have white flowers. From this type of question, you should be able to calculate the phenotypes and genotypes frequencies. Frequency of heterozygous Frequency of homozygous dominant/recessive Frequency of dominant allele Frequency of recessive allele Microinstruction Genetic Drift (founder effect, bottleneck effect) Gene Flow Mutation Nonrandom Mating Natural Selection Variations How do variations come about in a population?
Don’t waste your time!
Order your assignment!
Why is variation essential to natural selection to occur? How does variation lead to increased evolutionary fitness Of a population? Evolutionary Fitness How is the evolutionary fitness of an individual or a species evaluated? CLC How do the various types of selection (stabilizing, directional, diversifying) affect the makeup of a population of organisms? Chapter 24: Origin of Species Be familiar with the major definitions of a species (especially know how the illogical species concept was inaccurate and extrapolated on by the evolutionary species concept) Be able to explain the precocity and posthypnotic barriers that can lead to speciation.
Be able to explain how allophonic speciation (IEEE. , geographic isolation) can lead to a new species. Be able to explain the idea of adaptive radiation. (egg. , chain islands) Be able to explain how symmetric speciation leads to a new species. Be able to distinguish between evolutionary convergence and divergence Be able to explain how the theory of punctuated equilibrium explains evolution. What entrants this idea> Be able to explain what is meant by limerick growth within a species.
Chapter 25: Tracing Phylogeny Fossils Relative Dating vs.. Absolute Dating Know the various types of visualization. Be able to explain how continental drift has contributed to the evolution of living organisms. Phylogeny You don’t need to go in depth in this section. Generally, know how phylogeny includes the ideas of evolutionary change and common ancestry to group (classify) living organisms together. Also, understand how outgrows are used In studies to establish evolutionary relationships.