We are brought up to follow the beliefs, values, and customs of our society and to avoid behavior that is judged “unacceptable” or considered to be taboo. In addition to segmenting in terms of cultural factors, marketers also segment overall societies into smaller subgroups or subcultures that consist of people who are similar in terms of their ethnic origin, their customs, and the ways they behave.
These subcultures provide important marketing opportunities for astute marketing strategists. So, now our discussion in this chapter on subcultures will be more focused marred to the other chapters. Instead of examining the dominant beliefs, values, and customs that exist within an entire society, we will explore the marketing opportunities created by the existence of certain beliefs, values, and customs shared by members of specific sub cultural groups within a society.
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These sub cultural divisions are based on a variety of socio-cultural and demographic variables such as nationality, religion, geographic locality, race, age, sex, and even working status. Objectives After studying this chapter we should be able: Dunderheads the concept of subcultures; O Identify the various types of subcultures and measure their impact on consumer behavior. Subcultures Culture can be divided into subcultures: The term subculture refers to a category of people who share a sense of identification that is distinguishable from that of the total culture.
A sub-culture is an identifiable distinct, cultural group, which, while following the dominant cultural values of the overall society also has its own belief, values and customs that set them apart from other members of the same 1 OF s Sub-culture categories are: ; Nationality: Bangladesh, Indian, Pakistani; Religion: Hinduism, Islam; ; Race: Asian, black, white; ; Age: Generation X Market, Generation Y Market, Seniors, Baby Boomers Market; ; Sex: Male, Female; ; Occupation: Farmer, teacher, business; ; Social class: upper, middle, lower; ; Geographic regions: South India, North-eastern India.
Let us now look at some of these aspects of subculture in greater details. 1 Regional, Ethnic, and Religious Influences on Consumer Behavior o Regional Influences A. Regions within the country, B. Regions across the World. O Ethnic Influences A. Ethnic Groups within the Country, B. Multicultural Marketing, C. Ethnic Groups around the World. O Religious Infill ounces The three major aspects of culture that have important effects on consumer behavior are regional, ethnic, and religious differences.
Firstly, consumption patterns may differ in various regions of Bangladesh and the world, and marketing strategy can sometimes be tailored specifically to these regions. Secondly, our country has a number of different ethnic groups, and population trends will dramatically alter the demographic profile of the country in the next 50 years. Ethnicity Ethnic origin refers to the genetic irritate group a person is born in- marketplace behavior and marketer response; ovary mainstream marketing for ethnic markets; o Pay attention to customs; 0 Product adaptation; souse of multicultural models in advertising.
This diverse population is described in terms of its distinct identity and language, strong family and religious orientation, solid work ethic, and youthfulness. The broad characteristics can influence consumption (e. G. , brand loyalty and the desire for prestige products) and have important implications for product development, advertising media targeting, promotions, and distribution. Say for instance, in the United States, the African American population is described as urban, young, social, and religious. Black consumers value prestigious brands and are smart investigative shoppers.
These patterns lead to important marketing implications. The very diverse Asian American us Becquerel is described as young and having higher socioeconomic status, placing strong value on the family and the group, and being strongly brand loyal. In spite of its diversity, marketing strategies can be developed for this group. Many marketers are now becoming multicultural in their marketing activities by trying to appeal to a variety of cultures at the same time. Although the diversity of the Indian melting pot may be unique, there are many important ethnic groups in other areas of the world.
Finally, religious beliefs and values can influence consumer. 2. Age, Gender, and Household Influences on Consumer Behavior l. How Age Affects Consumer Behavior A. Generation X Market, B. Generation Y Market, C. Seniors, D. Baby Boomers Market. II. How Gender Affects Consumer Behavior A. Sex Roles Have Changed, Differences in Acquisition and Consumption Behaviors. B. How the Household Influences Consumer Behavior Ill. A. Types of Households, Changing Trends in Household Structure. IV. Roles That Household Members Play A. Roles of Spouses, B. The Roles of Children, C. Household Decision Making Versus Household Consumption Behavior. Age has a major influence on customer behavior ; Chronological versus psychological age. *Needs and wants vary with age ; Lifetime revenue: estimated revenue over a customers lifetime. *Population age changes imply major shifts in markets and values/demand -E. G. Ageing baby boomers. Lees look at the four major age groups. Teens, who need to establish an identity, are the consumers of tomorrow and have an increasing influence on family decisions. The somewhat disillusioned Generation X consists of smart and cynical consumers who can easily see through obvious marketing attempts.
Baby boomers grew up in a very dynamic and fast changing world and this has affected their values for individualism and freedom. The 50 and older segment can be divided into two groups-the young again and the gray market. Neither group likes to be thought of as old. The affect of gender differences on consumer behavior is examined next. Sex oleos are changing. Women are becoming more professional and independent, and men are becoming more sensitive and caring. Also, men and women can differ in terms of traits, information processing, decision styles, and consumption patterns. Consistent throughout lifetime, influencing customer values and preferences. ; Different consumption patterns and perceptions of consumption situations -E. G. The wedding ceremony. ; Differences for business-to-business products and services career paths, benefits and support services. -Also Let us now focus on how households play a key role in consumer behavior. The proportion of nontraditional households has increased due to factors such as- (1) Later marriages, (2) Cohabitation, (3) Increased divorce, and (4) Fewer children. Households also exert an important influence on acquisition and consumption patterns.
First, household members can play different roles in the decision process (gatekeeper, influencer, decider, buyer, and user). Second, husbands and wives vary in their influence in the decision process, depending on the situation-husband-dominant, wife-dominant, autonomic, or syntactic. 3. Chirography’s: Values, Personality, and Lifestyles We need to answer these questions regarding the role Of chirography’s in affecting consumer behavior. L. Values A. How Can Values Be Described? B. Which Values Characterize Western Culture? C. Why DO values Change? D.
What Affects Our Values? E. How Can Values Be Measured? II. Personality A. How Has Personality Been Studied? B. Do Personality Characteristics Affect Consumer Behavior? Ill. Lifestyles IV. Chirography’s: Combining Values, Personality, and Lifestyles and Lifestyle Survey, B. Other Applied Cryptographic Research. A Values Values are enduring beliefs about things that are important. They are learned wrought the processes of colonization and acculturation. Our values exist in an organized value system, with some values being viewed as more important than others.
Some are regarded as terminal values and reflect desired end states that guide behavior across many different situations. Instrumental values are those needed to achieve these desired end states. Domain-specific values are those that are relevant within a given sphere of activity. Western cultures tend to place a relatively high value on material goods, youth, the home, family and children, work and play, health, hedonism, and technology. Personality consists of the distinctive patterns of behaviors, tendencies, qualities, and personal dispositions that make people different from one another.
Approaches to the study of personality include- (1) The psychoanalytic approach, which sees personality arising from unconscious internal struggles within the mind at key stages Of development; (2) Trait theories, which attempt to identify a set of personality characteristics that describe and differentiate individuals, such as introversion, extroversion, and stability; (3) Phenomenological approaches, which propose that personality is shaped by an individual’s interpretation of fife events (4) Social-psychological theories, which focus on how individuals act in social situations (e. . , compliant, detached, or aggressive); and (5) Behavioral approaches, which view an individual’s personality in terms of past rewards and punishments. Marketers also measure lifestyles, which are patterns of behavior (or activities, interests, and opinions). These lifestyles can provide some additional insight into consumers’ consumption patterns. Finally, some marketing researchers use Cryptographic techniques that involve all of these factors to predict consumer behavior.