Second, the media and meaning of exchanges are discussed in order to provide a foundation for specifying underlying mechanisms in marketing exchanges. Finally, social marketing is analyzed in light of the broadened concept of exchanges. Marketing theory is concerned with two questions: Why do people and organizations engage in exchange relationships and How are exchanges created, resolved, or avoided? The Types of Exchanges There are three types of exchanges: restricted, generalized, and complex. Restricted Exchanges Restricted exchanges refers to two-party reciprocal relationships.
Most treatments of, and references to, exchanges in the marketing literature have implicitly dealt with stricter exchanges; that is, they have dealt with customer-salesman, wholesaler- retailer, or other such dyadic exchanges. Restricted exchanges exhibit two characteristics: First: there Is a great deal of attempt to malting equality. Negatively, the breach of the rule of equality quickly leads to emotional reactions. Secondly, there is a quid pro quo mentality in restricted exchanges activities.
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Generalized Exchange Generalized exchange denotes univocal, reciprocal relationships among at least three actors in the exchange situation. Univocal reciprocity occurs if the reciprocation involves at least three actors and if the actors do not benefit each other directly but only Indirectly’ In generalized exchange, the social actors from a system In witch each actor gives to another but receives from someone other than whom he gave. Complex exchange refers to a system of mutual relationship between at least three parties.
Each social actor is involved in at least one direct exchange, while the entire system is organized by an interconnecting web of relationships. The best example of complex exchange in marketing is the channel of distribution. Many marketing exchanges involve relatively closed sequences of relationships. For example a transaction take place when a person decides to watch a television program” In this system of exchange, the person experiences a direct transfer of intangibles between himself and the program. He gives attention, support, potential for purchase, and so on, and formation, and other intangible entities.
The person also experiences an indirect exchange with the television program via a sequence of direct, tangible exchanges. After being informed of the availability of a kook through an exchange with the television program and its advertising, a person may purchase it. An exchange can occur between a person and a television program. Exchange and the pursuit of self-interest can be the foundation for the web of kinship, economic, and social institutions. The Media and Meaning of Exchange People and organizations are compelled to engage in social and economic exchanges with other people and organizations.
They do this by communicating and controlling the media of exchange which, in turn, compromise the links between one individual ND another, between one organization and another. The Media of Exchanges The media of exchanges are vehicles with which people communicate to, and influence, others in the satisfaction of their needs. These vehicles include money, persuasion, punishment, power (authority), inducement, and activation of normative or ethical commitments. Products and services are also media of exchanges.
The Meaning of Exchanges Human behavior is a conjunction of meaning with action and reaction. Exchange is more than the mere transfer of a product or services for money. Most Marketing exchanges are characterized by such a transfer. In general, marketing exchanges may exhibit one of three classes of meanings: utilitarian, symbolic, or mixed. Utilitarian Exchange is an interaction whereby goods are given in return for money of other goods and the motivation begins the actions lies in the anticipated use or tangible characteristics commonly associated with the objects in the exchanges.
The utilitarian exchanges is often referred to as an economic exchange, and most treatments of exchange in marketing implicitly rely on this usage. Intangible entities between two or more parties. Symbol is a general term for all instances where experience is mediated rather than direct; where an object, aviation, word, picture, or complex behavior is understood to mean not only itself but also some other ideas or feelings. As behavior in the market place is increasingly elaborated, it also becomes increasingly symbolic. People buy things not only for what they condo, but also for what they mean. Mixed Exchange.
Marketing exchange involve both utilitarian and symbolic aspects and it is often very difficult to separate the two. Social Marketing Some have defined the term to signify the use of marketing skills in social causes while others have meant it to refer also to the study of markets and marketing activities with a total social system. Social marketing designates the application of marketing techniques to non marketing fields. ” We must reject the notion that social marketing is merely the use” or application” of marketing techniques or skills to other areas. A science or discipline is something more than its technologies.
Social marketing is not solely the study of marketing within the frame of the total social yester, and it is even more than subject matter of the discipline. Social marketing addresses a particular types of problems which, in turn, is a subset of the genetic concept of marketing. Social marketing is the answer to a particular question: Why and how are exchanges created and resolved in social relationships? Social relationships are those such as family planning agent-client, welfare contingent, social worker-poor person, and so on. Social marketing attempts to determine the dynamics and nature of exchanges behavior in these relationships.
Social marketing relationships exhibit what may be called generalized or complex exchanges. They involve the symbolic transfer of both tangible and intangible entities, and they invoke various media to influence such exchanges. Social marketing is really a subset of the generic concept of marketing in that it deals with the creation and resolution of exchanges in social relationships. Conclusion and Implications Exchange is a central concept in marketing and it may well serve as the foundation for elusive general theory of marketing”