Pre-Muslim Persia had a long literary tradition 1 . Rabbet of Goddard was Persians first known woman poet. A. Described the suffering love brings 2. Said “Persian Shakespeare” (1210-1292) is the favorite author in Iran and master of pithy maxim forcefully expressive truth) a. Rose Garden is a collection of entertaining stories written in prose with a little bit of verse b. Snakelike poems C. The most famous works of Middle Eastern literature were the Rubricate of Omar Shaman and Tales from 1 001 Nights. Mostly famous in the West for European readers D. Omar Shaman 1 .
Combined poetry with scientific works on mathematics&astronomy and a revision Of the calendar 2. Composed poems orally over Wine with friends 3. Key themes: impermanence of life, impossibility of knowing God, and disbelief in an afterlife E. Arabian Nights 4. Skepticism and minimalist simplicity 1. Consisted of folktales, fables, and romances of Indian and indigenous origin that interweave with the natural and supernatural 2. Told orally—later transcribed into Persian and Arabic versions 3. Extraordinary plots, sensuality, comic and tragic situations and a cast of unforgettable characters F.
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Some Arabic and Persian literature reflected the deep spiritual and ethical concerns of the Koran l. Our-in embraced Suffix (mystical relationship between Allah and humans) a. Sought to reach God by the whirling dance of the dervish where he extempore the most passionate lyrical verse historical writing BC of paper manufacturing bout both the non-Muslim and Muslim worlds. G. Major contribution to 1 . AI-Miasma’s wrote a. Meadows of Gold was the source of much of our knowledge about the golden age of the Basis caliphate 2. Ban Chalked combined scholarship with government service. One of the first historians to attempt a philosophy of history V. Architecture A. Islamic art remained remarkably coherent over a wide area 1 Arabs developed a sense of rhythm and geometric ornamentation. Turks brought abstraction and infiltrative designs. Persians brought lyrical poetical mysticism (much of Islamic painting consist of Persian texts) B. Dome of the Rock (691) 1 . Proclaimed the spiritual and political legitimacy of the new religion to the ancient world 2.
On Muhammad holy rock and touches the Western Wall of the Jews and the oldest Christian church 3. One of the most revered Islamic monuments 4. Interior reflects Persian motifs with mosaics of precious stone C. As Islam became more established, larger mosques were being built 1 . Used to pray in an open court shaded along the kibble (the wall facing the holy city of Mecca. Direction prayer is in) D. Great Mosque of Samara (848-852) was the largest mosque ever built 1. Et in the kibble was a Miramar (niche) that contained a decorated panel pointing to Mecca and representing Allah 2. 0 foot tall minaret that the muezzin called the faithful to prayer E. Palaces reflected the glory of Islam 1 -Rulers constructed large brick domiciles reminiscent of Roman design 2 Alhambra in Spain in the city of Granddad 1 Intricate floral and commissariat patterns 2. 1_ion Court with a lion fountain and arcade with elegant columns and carvings VI. Art A. Knotted woolen rug 1 . Small rugs served as prayer mats and larger ones were given by rulers as rewards for political favors 2. The art Of rug weaving has been passed down from mother to daughter a. Killed artisans represented and extra enticement to prospective bridegrooms and rugs often became an important part of a woman’s dowry to her future husband 3. Decorations consisted of Arabic script and natural plant and figurative motifs. Repetitive commissariat geometrical patterns (arabesques) 4. Brick, mosaic and stucco ornamentation B. No representation of the Prophet Muhammad 1 . The Haiti warned against any attempt to imitate God through artistic creation or idolatry C. Persians used calligraphy and art to decorate heir books D.
Mongol painting freed Islamic painters from traditional confines and enabled them to experiment with new technicalities after Muhammad- the spread of Islam: ; The next four leaders of Islam(caliph- successor to the prophet) were known as the “Rightly Guided Caliphs” – they were all guided by the leadership of Muhammad, the Curran and Shari there were 27 prophets,Muhammad is the last – others include Abraham, Moses, Jesus,etc ; religion easy to learn/practice ; no priesthood ; “People of the book” were forced to pay tributes ; Basis dynasty(Golden Age) or reign of Harsh al Rasher Mayday dynasty (pushed into Persia and Spain- cordovan) ; Believers were promised by Allah to(be) -forgiven from their sins -ennoble their state -grant them guidance -admit them to paradise -make them strong and protect them ; The success of the Muslims to this time was largely due to -the faith and loyalty Of the followers -a well disciplined army -good military leaders -wee Kerr neigh boors a. Byzantine empire and Persian empire Divisions in Islam: ; The Sunnis/Shiite split- division over who the caliph should be -Shih’s- believed the caliph must be related to the prophet Sunnis- believed any good Muslim could be caliph ; -By 750- three main groups of Muslims developed 1 . The Maydays- established a capitol in Spain-cordovan 2. The Basics- established a capitol in Baghdad- 3.
The Fatima- ruled a large portion of North America- Cairo Treatment of colored people: ; Conquered people were encouraged to convert to Islam -would benefit by paying lower taxes ; Conquered people were allowed to keep their own religion ; Jews and Christians were respected as the “People of the Book” Trade: ; Traded by ship and camel caravans that were known as “fleets of the desert” Developed banking currency, letters of credit ; Traded with: -Sahara-gold and slaves -China-silk and proteins -East horn -South Asia- sandalwood, cotton, whereat, sugar, spices -Spain -Western India -Egypt Muslim Women: ; Wear veil ; Prohibited from any social contact with any males outside the home Dietary restrictions: ; No pork ; No alcohol ; No gambling ; Up to 4 wives The Golden Age: ; Basis dynasty- the reign of Harsh Rasher ; A time of great achievement in art, science, math, medicine, astronomy, literature, and fine arts Art: ; Blend of Arab, Persian, and Turkish traditions Religious art wont have people ; Art has geometric designs ; Calligraphy ; Non religious art did have people ; It was forbidden to draw Muhammad or Allah Scholarship ; The house of wisdom- library where everything is translated into Arabic ; Muslims took the best of every civilizations and combined them ; Shows cultural diffusion Science: ; Muslims set up an observatory at Baghdad to study the position of the stars where they figured out that the earth was in fact round and in the 9th century produced a map based on the tradition of the Greece-roman astronomer