“Objective & Importance of Operation Management and Its Practical Aspects in Bangladesh for Our Industrial & Economic Development to Meet the World Market Competition”. Assignment

“Objective & Importance of Operation Management and Its Practical Aspects in Bangladesh for Our Industrial & Economic Development to Meet the World Market Competition”. Assignment Words: 3166

Executive Summary In this unit we have considered the functions associated with a typical R&D department operating in the microelectronic sector, produced a typical job description for a design engineer and mentioned some management issues.

Typical R&D functions that we have described are:- ??? Development of New Products- usually the primary function of R&D ??? Product Maintenance- probably the most important secondary function of R&D- short term income is important ??? Product Enhancement – helps keep the company products ahead of the competition and extends the life of products ??? Regulatory Compliance- a legal requirement- products sold in the European Community must carry the CE mark ??? The Quality R&D Interface- quality is a major issue and R&D are heavily involved in ensuring new products attain the required levels of quality ??? The R&D structure we have outlined is typical of an SME- job descriptions help to define the structure of a department effectively. Operations Management Operations management focuses on carefully managing the processes to produce and distribute products and services. Usually, small businesses don’t talk about “operations management”, but they carry out the activities that management schools typically associate with the phrase “operations management. ” Major, overall activities often include product creation, development, production and distribution. (These activities are also associated with Product and Service Management.

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However product management is usually in regard to one or more closely related product — that is, a product line. Operations management is in regard to all operations within the organization. ) Related activities include managing purchases, inventory control, quality control, storage, logistics and evaluations. A great deal of focus is on efficiency and effectiveness of processes. Therefore, operations management often includes substantial measurement and analysis of internal processes. Ultimately, the nature of how operations management is carried out in an organization depends very much on the nature of products or services in the organization, for example, retail, manufacturing, wholesale, etc. Procurement (Purchasing) Practices

This topic reviews guidelines for buying various materials from suppliers and vendors — materials, including computers, services from lawyers, insurance, etc. Procurement (Purchasing) Practices Management Control and Coordinating Function Management control and coordination includes a broad range of activities to ensure that organizational goals are consistently being met in an effective and efficient fashion. Control Function of Management (includes major activities to ensure goals are being met) Product and Service Management As noted above, the major activities involved in product and service management are similar to those in operations management. However, operations management is focused on the operations of the entire organization, rather than managing a product or service.

Product/Service Mgmt (product creation, development, production and distribution and sales) Quality Management Quality management is crucial to effective operations management, particularly continuous improvement. More recent advancements in quality, such as benchmarking and Total Quality Management, have resulted in advancements to operationsmanagementaswell. Inventory Management Costs can be substantial to store and move inventory. Innovative methods, such as Just-in-Time inventory control, can save costs and move products and services to customers more quickly. Basics About Inventory Control and Management Buying and Inventory System Getting Back on Track, including inventory control

Models for Inventory Control Association for Operations Management Supply Chain Management ABCs of Supply Chain Management Institute for Supply Chain Management Supply Chain Management General Resources About Inventory Control and Management American Production and Inventory Control Society Center for Inventory Management Software Packages You can often get a software package that will help you manage your inventory. Usually, these packages are primarily for accounting. See Accounting Software Logistics and Transportation Management Logistics is focused on the flow of materials and goods from suppliers, through the organization and to the customers, with priority on efficiency and cost effectiveness. usiness relocation checklist more business relocation lists Want to outsource logistics? Here’s what you should know General Resources About Logistics and Transportation list of logistics links another extensive list of logistics and transportation links Logistics Glossary Also see: Telecommuting (working from home) Facilities Management Effective operations management depnds a great deal on effective management of facilities, such as buildings, computer systems, signage, lighting, etc. Facilities Management (managing facilities, offices, buildings, signage, lights, etc. ) Configuration Management It’s important to track the various versions of products and services.

Consider the various versions of software that continually are produced, each with its own version number. Tracking these versions is configuration management. Distribution Channels The means of distribution depend very much on the nature of the product or service. Industrial Management Unit 1. : Research (R) This unit describes the function of a development department in a typical SME, operating in the microelectronics sector. Note that many SMEs do not carry out research in the true sense of the word, however the abbreviation R (Research & Development) is used almost universally to mean development in such companies, and we shall use it frequently throughout this module.

Job types and job definitions for the development personnel will also be described. You will be asked to provide a job description for the manager of the development department in the self assessment question (SAQ) at the end of this unit. The information in this unit allows the management of the R internal function to be defined. 2. Development of new products The primary function of the R department is to develop new products, which are essential if the company is to generate profits in the medium and long term. All products have a finite commercial life and this is particularly true in the microelectronics sector, where new technological developments are occurring continuously.

The key factors that both the R managers and their staff are responsible for, when developing new products are:- ??? Ensuring the new product meets the product specification ??? Developing products to budget ??? Developing products on time ??? Developing products to meet the target production costs ??? Developing products that can be produced quickly and economically ??? Developing products to comply with regulatory requirements ??? Developing products that meet specified quality levels as detailed in the product quality plan 3. Maintenance of existing products Existing products must be maintained to ensure that they can be produced to specification.

For example, a component required for an existing product may become obsolete. When this happens R are expected to find an alternative quickly so that production of the product will not be delayed. A serious example of a product maintenance problem is when a key component is discontinued, such as a microprocessor, which may result in a complete software rewrite and electronic hardware redesign. Ideally critical components should be second sourced, if possible. Product maintenance is vital- it ensures that income from the production and sales of existing products is not lost and customers are not disappointed by late deliveries. [pic] 4. Enhancement of existing products

The commercial life of a product may be increased by enhancing it in some way, giving it extra features, improving its performance, changing its appearance, or making it cheaper to produce, etc. Many companies enhance their products- it can keep their product ahead of the competition and spreads the large capital outlay associated with developing products over a longer period. 5. Interfacing with production While a new product is being developed, development staff and production staff interact to ensure that the product is manufacturable. The intention is to ensure low cost production and short production times, while maintaining quality standards.

We shall assume that a set of product manufacturing instructions are produced, by development and production staff, as each new product is developed. In addition to the product manufacturing instructions, a product production test schedule is also produced, which defines the various tests that must be carried out when the product is manufactured. We shall consider this documentation set in more detail in later units. The R – Production interface is vital- not only does it ensure low production costs, but by reducing production times it should be possible to increase output and therefore income, on a monthly basis. 6. Technical aspects of regulatory compliance It is a legal requirement that products used in the European Community must comply with the relevant European Directives.

The R department is primarily responsible for ensuring that this is the case, but senior management are liable to fines and/or prison sentences for serious cases of non-compliance. Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) is a major consideration when designing new, electronically based products. 7. Quality A product quality plan is produced for new products as they are developed, principally by R and the quality department. However, if the product is being developed for an external customer, the customer’s quality department must also be heavily involved. Note that the quality plan devised in conjunction with external customers can have serious commercial ramifications- such as unacceptable reject levels for products delivered to the customer.

The quality plan may allow the customer to return a whole batch of products as a result of a small number of samples failing the customer’s quality tests. 8. R Department Internal Structure The job titles in the Development Department are listed below:- 1. Development Manager 2. Digital Circuit Design Engineer 3. Analogue Circuit Design Engineer 4. High Level Software Engineer 5. Low Level Software Engineer 6. Mechanical Design Engineer 7. Technician (Mechanical) 8. Technician (Electronics) An example of a job description in the development department is listed in the next section. [pic] 9. Digital Circuit Design Engineer Job Description Responsible to – Development Manager Primary Role – Digital electronics design

Secondary Role – Analogue to digital interfacing Technical skill sets required; Capable of designing digital circuits at the fundamental level. Capable of interfacing between digital and analogue systems and circuits. Familiarity with EMC regulations and the impact of EMC on circuit and printed circuit board (PCB) design. Printed circuit board design. Supporting skill sets required; Proficient in using digital design CAD software packages. Proficient in using PCB software design packages. Behavioral skill sets required Self motivating Creative Good problem solving skills Good communications skills Good self management skills Capable of working in a team environment General Job description:

The digital design engineer is expected to be able to design digital circuits to meet specified requirements at the fundamental level using hardware description languages where appropriate. Normally system and circuit designs will be validated by building evaluation models prior to the prototype stage. The digital design engineers will be responsible for validating the designs they have produced while working closely with systems engineers, analogue engineers and technicians in the validation process. The digital design engineer will also be expected to design PCBs, from schematic capture, through to layout and parts definition etc. Again the digital design engineers will work closely with other members of the R team to evaluate and validate PCBs at board and system level.

The design engineer is required to design for EMC at both the circuit and PCB level. An important aspect of the digital designer’s activities is the production of clear and concise documentation as the development of each new product progresses. Assistance to the Production Department is also an essential design engineer’s role, which the designer will be expected to provide as required. Finally the designer must be able to integrate with a small team, exhibit high levels of creativity and problem solving skills and possess good communication skills. Important Note: Digital design engineers may be asked to undertake other roles on a temporary basis should the need arise and if asked by their manager to do so.

Note that EEL produces a documented description of the development department similar to that described in this unit. DUL however relies on word of mouth and verbal “definitions”, which of course change almost day by day and depend heavily on the person expressing them. Clearly defining the function of the R department and its internal structure allows the internal management of the development department to be defined. This is particularly valuable to newly appointed managers. In addition, all the staff in the development department have documented job description that allows them to more fully understand their role in the company and what management expects from them.

Again, this very useful to new employee when they join the company. Note that defining the functionality of R helps in defining the management process. This does not mean that management will be carried out effectively, but its a start. A job profile for each of the job types in the development department (and other departments) would be produced and documented. We have used the phrase “internal management” in this unit. We have not yet considered how the development manger is expected to interact with other managers and personnel in the company. This will be an ongoing theme in the remainder of the units in this module. 10. Management Issues

Defining the functions of a department and providing job definitions of personnel operating in it help to define the internal management of the department. Individual responsibilities are clearly defined but management will always reserve the right to ask personnel to carry out tasks outside their job definitions, should the need arise. Ideally this should only be in unusual circumstances and be extended over short periods of time. The fact that the department functionality and job definitions are specified allows both the manager and the managed to know what the company expects of them and should help all parties in carrying out their roles. We have described the situation in EEL, which will help the newly appointed manager of R considerably when she takes up her new appointment.

In addition to having defined systems the new manager is given an induction when she starts her job which allows her to meet her staff, other managers in the company and also members of the board. Because structures are defined and essential information is available on the company intranet, she starts to feel at home quickly and does not have to commit large amounts of information to memory. However, the situation in DUL is somewhat different- there are no formal systems and formal job definitions do not exist, consequently when the new manger of R takes office he does not have a clear idea of the departmental functions and he has to commit a lot of information to memory. The induction process at DUL is not very effective and in particular the newly appointed manager is not introduced to board members.

The manger of R in DUL feels uneasy about undertaking his new role. Note there is potential conflict between some of the roles and functions R provide: for example providing support for product maintenance is likely to clash with product development. The potential loss of income in the short term nearly always takes precedence over medium to long term activities. However, R are judged mainly on their ability to develop successful new products and are seldom credited for the time they spend on what is for them a secondary activity. Job Description – Operations Manager People with the job title Operations Manager typically fall into one of the following PayScale standard occupations. General and Operations Managers – Plan, direct, or coordinate the operations of companies or public and private sector organizations. Duties and responsibilities include formulating policies, managing daily operations, and planning the use of materials and human resources, but are too diverse and general in nature to be classified in any one functional area of management or administration, such as personnel, purchasing, or administrative services. Includes owners and managers who head small business establishments whose duties are primarily managerial. ??? [pic]Industrial Production Managers-Plan, direct, or coordinate the work activities and resources necessary for manufacturing roducts in accordance with cost, quality, and quantity specifications. ??? Storage and Distribution Managers-Plan, direct, and coordinate the storage and distribution operations within an organization or the activities of organizations that are engaged in storing and distributing materials and products. ??? Funeral Directors-Perform various tasks to arrange and direct funeral services, such as coordinating transportation of body to mortuary for embalming, interviewing family or other authorized person to arrange details, selecting pallbearers, procuring official for religious rites, and providing transportation for mourners. ??? Managers, All Other-All managers not listed separately. Cost Estimators-Prepare cost estimates for product manufacturing, construction projects, or services to aid management in bidding on or determining price of product or service. May specialize according to particular service performed or type of product manufactured. ??? Petroleum Engineers-Devise methods to improve oil and gas well production and determine the need for new or modified tool designs. Oversee drilling and offer technical advice to achieve economical and satisfactory progress. ??? Technical Directors/Managers-Coordinate activities of technical departments, such as taping, editing, engineering, and maintenance, to produce radio or television programs. ??? Broadcast Technicians-Set up, operate, and maintain the electronic equipment used to transmit radio and television programs.

Control audio equipment to regulate volume level and quality of sound during radio and television broadcasts. Operate radio transmitter to broadcast radio and television programs. Facility Operations Manager Definition Under general direction, manages the activities of the Facility Operation Division to ensure efficient administrative, business, and property management functions for the Cultural Arts Center, Airport, City Yard and Central Services function; and performs related work as required. Distinguishing Characteristics The Facility Operations Manager is distinguished from the General Services Director in that the Facility Operations Manager does not have esponsibility for the entire Department, and is distinguished from lower level supervisors in that the supervisors do not have administrative responsibility over a division of the department. Work is performed within a broad framework of general policy. The incumbent exercises broad judgment in defining work objectives and determining methods and systems to meet objectives. Work is reviewed for overall results. Supervision Exercised/Received Receives general direction from the General Services Director; exercises direct supervision over supervisors and subordinate personnel. Examples of Essential Duties The following duties represent the principal job duties; however, they are not all inclusive. Plans, assigns, coordinates and manages the operations and staff of a major division of the General Services Department. ??? Plans and directs the work of staff including training, assigning work, planning and reviewing work, evaluating work performance and completing performance evaluations, coordinating activities, maintaining standards, allocating personnel, selecting new employees, acting on employee problems and recommending employee discipline. ??? Monitors staff’s performance, and coaches for improvement and development. ??? Develops, implements and evaluates Division and Department plans, policies, and procedures to achieve annual goals, objectives, and work standards. Develops, administers and monitors the division and program budgets. ??? Develops and reviews the marketing and promotion of the services of the Center. ??? Develops standards for quality customer service practices by formulating assessment techniques and making recommendations for improvement. ??? Responds to complaints or questions regarding the facility operations and takes appropriate action to resolve problems. ??? represents the division on various boards and commissions. ??? prepares a variety of written reports, agenda items, and other materials; reviews and edits reports prepared by support staff. ??? represents the General Services Director as assigned in specified areas.

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