President, AN Nazarene to the strategic directions of development of the republic in the coming decade include education and science, the development of which racially depend on the pace of economic, technical and technological progress, political development, the state of culture and spirituality in society. During the years of reforms undertaken bold steps to introduce innovations. So, with the adoption in June 1999. Law “On education” has a new model of the national education system, corresponding to the International Standard Classification of Education, recommended by UNESCO.
In accordance with it, based on the principle of continuity and has 4 levels of education: – Pre-school education and training. Secondary’ education. – Higher Education. – Post-graduate education. In this model, there is no such levels, as vocational and secondary education. Training and retraining of personnel, it also is not education levels, and are considered as basic forms of additional professional education. The education system WOOS in the last 10 years has undergone significant changes.
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In the late ass’s have been reducing the share of the actual level of funding, the closing (the “optimization”), a number of educational institutions, the crisis in the system as a whole. Currently, the system of education has entered a period of stabilization, which is characterized by extensive placement of innovative processes in the content, organization and management of education that brought some positive results. Modern trends of development of Astrakhan created the need for and problems of education at the level of each region. In the decision of the Mayor adopted a program of education development JERK the period 2001 – 2005.
Which is designed to provide organizational and substantive unity, continuity and interconnectedness of all levels in the education field taking into account the social structure of the region, its traditions, ethnic and economic features. Financing of the activities of the program is planned to be within budget and providing paid educational services. The nominal minimum requirement for its implementation to date is 38. 8 billion. Preschools Education of preschool children is essential for the formation of communication skills, language development, physical development and school readiness.
Dynamics of the major indicators of children’s preschool education system, shows a significant reduction in the network of kindergartens, and, consequently, enrollment in preschool education. This was a consequence of folding the base objects of social and domestic impasses in the region, and reducing funding for state educational institutions. The number and rate of decline of kindergartens in the area over the past 10 years, characterized by the following data: As can be seen from the diagram, the peak of “optimization” of preschool institutions has fallen to 1995-1997.
For 10 years the number of kindergartens declined at 12. 5 times the number of seats in them – in 5. 4 times. In the villages, this process occurs more rapidly. If the cities and towns the number of kindergartens declined to 6. 7 times that in rural areas – 60 times. In 1990, rural kindergartens accounted or 52% of their total number in 2000 – 11%. Despite such a sharp decline in pre-school institutions, filling the available places is 92%, and it’s not so much a demographic factor, as indicator of availability of services for preschool populations.
The cost of visiting a kindergarten child per month from 1 to 2 times the minimum wage established in the country. The waiting list for places in kindergarten in 1 990 amounted to 20. 4 thousand willing, in 1 995 – 2. 5 thousand, in later years she was gone, If in 1990 at 100 available seats had 118 children, now – 92. On 1. 01. 2001 kindergartens visited 9,654 children, of homo 3,887 (40%) children of the regional center, 1 593 (17%) – Semifinalists, 1 303 (13%) – Lemongrass, 528 (5%) – surrounding District 362 (4%) – Shenanigan area. State ownership has 57 kindergartens, private – 16.
On the number of places private kindergartens large state, however, the occupancy rate of below, as determined by the higher cost of services (88 children per 1 00 seats against 94 children per 1 00 seats). Of the total number of preschool institutions in 1915 is being trained under the program a grade of secondary school. In 58 kindergartens communication with children is one f the languages: in 54 – in Russian, and 4 in Khaki. In 15 preschool children communicate in two languages. During 2000, due to illness of children has been overlooked 135. 8 thousand days, an average of 16 days per child (8% more than in 1999).
In total, there were 17. 2 thousand cases of diseases and injuries, or 1992 per thousand children enrolled in kindergarten (in 1999 – 1 51 1 All buildings of kindergartens are based on a model project, about 45% of them need major repairs, including 43% in urban areas and 63% in rural areas. These data indicate an unsatisfactory state of the material base of hillside’s preschool institutions. Not enough common practice of the two linguistic communication with children. Reported increases in the incidence compared with 1999. All of this suggests problems encountered in this area.
One of the areas of program development of the education system for 2001-2005 called “a gradual increase in enrollment in preschool education, providing pre-school education of children preschool age, as well as” further development of the network of educational institutions of all types, it is reported that ” keep the number of kindergartens, funded from the budget. For the development of preschool education, and greater coverage of preschool-age children, the existing number of kindergartens is not enough, but the increase at the expense of their businesses will not solve the problem.
Availability of childcare facilities is defined today not by the desire of parents to give children education in preschool, and their ability to pay for this service. So, while most suitable for many remains the pre-school preparation of children, organized by the schools. School System The main priorities in school education is to further promote the rights of tizzies to free secondary education in state educational institutions, quality assurance of the educational process to-date, comprehensive coverage of teaching school-age children.
Education, which gives the school, is one of the main factors ensuring the active involvement of children in socio-economic processes of society. It is the basic level of continuous education and includes 3 stages: primary, primary and secondary schools. The greatest number of schools in the area recorded in 1 994 – 894 During the “optimization” of educational institutions (1997), there were 841 . To date, the school system of he region includes 833 public and 14 private schools. In addition, 13 of legally combining schools, which operate at kindergartens and 3 – at colleges.
Among the schools 3 schools offering specialized subjects, 9 schools, 10 high schools, 3 boarding school. Distribution of schools by level of education and the location is presented in the table below: Number of students in day schools has increased from the previous school year by 4. 3% to $ 301. 1 thousand children (boys 152. 8 and 148. 3 for girls), including in the cities and towns of 163. 1 thousand in rural areas – 139 thousand. In urban middle schools in the equipment 3 times higher than rural: urban areas per school on average 709 pupils in rural areas – 224 students.
Shown is the number of schools and the index of completeness of schools across the regions of: As is evident from the data submitted, the school most dense configuration located in the regional center, Semifinalists, Cockroach, Baby, Agog, Schoolbooks, Asian, Syrian, Targeting and Raja areas. The main part of the schools (60. 9%) is organizing the educational process in two-shift classes; 38. 7% are learned in one shift, 0. 4% – in three shifts. In the afternoon, trains 34% of students of urban and township schools and 24% in rural areas. Number of teachers in secondary schools is 25. Thousand people, including working in urban areas, 11. 5 thousand persons in rural areas – 13. 9 thousand Number of students per teacher on average 12 people, including those in towns and cities 14 people in the villages 10. At the beginning of the current school year of 1098 there were classes (groups) with in-depth study of subjects, mostly humanitarian. In general, the area in secondary schools in-depth study subjects every 16 the student. The diagram shows the distribution of classes by type of in-depth study of subjects: Of circle work covered 63. Thousand students. The most widespread are the circles of art, sports and military-mass, they reached 21 and 23 thousand children. There are also sections of technical creativity, humanities, tourist and local lore, and others. Work continues on a program of computerizing of schools. The level of computerizing, IEEE the number of computers, falling by an average of one school in the cities and districts at the beginning of the school year 2000/2001 was the following: At the beginning of academe ICC year data-processing and computer technology have 77% of urban schools (2. Thousand jobs with PC) and 37% of rural schools (2. 3 million). As can be seen from the table, the least accessible computer technology students Beggaring, Acton Karakas and Raja areas. Equipping schools other specialized classrooms as follows: Classrooms Total, units The average number of equipped classrooms per school Town and village schools Rural schools Physics 556 0. 7 4 OF 11 0. 6 Chemistry 440 0. 5 Biology 358 0. 4 Khaki language 645 1. 1 Russian Language and Literature 460 1. 0 Mathematics 22 1. 2 Social studies 327 0. Geography 303 Foreign Language As can be seen from the table, urban schools in terms of equipment subject classrooms seem preferable. Training workshops for metalworking are 394 schools (237 rural schools), and wood processing – 456 (296), processing tissue and cooking – 418 (209), while 35% of all schools there are no shops. Almost all schools (92%) have training and an experienced land. Libraries are available in two-thirds of schools, of which 17% of primary and 79% in secondary schools. Reading rooms are in 369 schools, with the total number of seats 4. Thousand units. Every other school has a gym (53%), and only 20 schools – a swimming pool. The material base of schools leaves much to be desired. This is particularly true of rural schools, both in equipment rooms, and in the technical condition of buildings they have noticeably lagged behind schools in urban areas. Currently, 278 schools in the area (33% of all schools) need major repairs, including 198 schools in rural areas. In an emergency condition is 75 schools (9% of all schools), 65 of them in rural areas.
Analysis of the state school system indicates the presence of unresolved problems in this area. Today the school requires not only modern techniques, but primarily in financial support, both public and sponsorship, which would raise the school facilities to an adequate standard. Regional Programmer for the Development of the education system provides for improved logistics schools, including further computerizing, as well as the widespread use of rationalization and electronic textbooks, the introduction of a regional component of the curriculum.
Vocational training Particular attention is paid to the regional program of primary and secondary vocational education. Its development in the area suggests the following issues: free vocational training, since 2001, expanding the network of vocational training classes for students in upper secondary schools; increase dialing MESSES; quota of jobs for graduates from the FEET number of orphaned children, use of teaching production base of FEET to provide paid services. Number of students in secondary vocational education institutions for the planning period should be increased by 6%.
Initial vocational education in 2000/01 academic year is represented by 35 vocational-technical schools and high schools, of which 26 state (including 2 technical colleges in he Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Republic of Astrakhan) and 9 private, in addition, initial training is carried out 7 branches FEET colleges in the city Semifinalists. The total number of students in 2000/01 was 1 1 , 192 people, in public vocational schools enrolled 9,716 people in private – 1476. Every sixth student is enrolled on a fee basis.
According to the Department of Education and the dynamics of the graduates of vocational-technical schools and high schools at the beginning of the school year is as follows: During 4 years of enrollment vocational schools has decreased by 4. 3% of their production – by 7. %. Public, non-MESSES and high schools are training specialists in the day and evening classes The educational system of Astrakhan is adapted to the prevailing market economy, in connection with the MESSES and high schools of the main slope is now doing on the specialty most in demand in the labor market, the specialty on which the future can start their own businesses.
On the 2000/01 school year school vocational- technical purpose were trained in 80 specialties. Most popular among them used the following: Pastry Chef – 7. 4% of total enrollment, kaleidoscopically – 7. 1%, a master of agriculture – 6. %, barber generalists – 6. 3%, automobile drivers – 5. 1%, tractor-driver generalists – 3. 8 %. Regional Programmer for the Development of Education in 2001 – 2005,. Involves creating the conditions for increasing access to primary and secondary vocational education for adolescents and youth, as well as providing training and retraining of adults, given the situation on the labor market and structural changes in the regional economy, development in vocational education marketing services and employment opportunities, expansion of training of workers and specialists with secondary vocational education based n the order businesses. Secondary vocational education In the 2000/01 academic year, the training of specialists with secondary vocational education were 35 colleges.
Dynamics of population and registration of students in secondary specialized schools for the period from 1 990/91 school year as follows: For 10 years the number of college students has decreased by 31%, output – by 34%. Population decline was observed in the first 7 years (48%). During the last 3 years there has been a real increase in the number of students in colleges, which is associated with the development of private secondary vocational education. Number of private colleges in the area at the beginning of 2000/01 was 13 with a total of 3. 3 thousand students.
This year, the number of students in colleges compared to the 1 999/2000 academic year increased by 18. 1%, including full-time students at 22. 3% for part-time – 8. 3% and amounted to 18. 6 thousand students (13. 5 thousand people in full-time and 5. 1 thousand people on part- time). In 2000, colleges of education adopted at the 9. 1 million people (82% received), including full-time – 6. 7 thousand, or 73. 6% of general admission. Graduates was more than 5,000 people. Expected release in 2001 6,098 people. Of the total enrolled 1. 5 million people (17%) are trained by the budget.
Compared with 1999 the number enrolled on the basis of the budget increase actions has on the 645. Under contract with full reimbursement of expenses made 7. 6 million people (or 83%), up 5 percentage points lower than in the previous school year. May IS, 2000 was adopted by the Governmental Resolution “On measures for further development of primary and secondary vocational education, which aims to preserve and stabilize the schools, their logistical and human resource capacity, a mechanism for redacting and state regulation of training of workers and mid- managers in accordance with labor market needs.
The main task ; to give young people the knowledge and skills that will enable them to prepare for employment, self employment, will help open their own business to do business. Thus, the future citizens of our republic will be provided by the profession and, therefore, socially reserved. Vocational Astrakhan increasingly consolidating its position and become attractive to young people for many reasons, chief among which the availability of training for most young people. Higher vocational education Over the past 10 years, mostly due to lack of funding high school science is much reduced its rates for all positions.
However, despite the complexity of the transitional institutions of higher education in the region to a certain extent, been able to mitigate technical, material and personnel shortages, to continue work on important scientific and technical issues associated with the development of industrial complexes in the region to adapt to new conditions of management and financing, etc. E. Develop market mechanisms of the scientific sphere, take significant steps to integrate university research with reduction, scientific training and retraining of production.
Coca much reduced its rates for all positions. However, despite the complexity of the transitional institutions of higher education in the region to a certain extent, been able to mitigate technical, material and personnel shortages, to of management and financing, etc. E. Develop market mechanisms of the production, scientific training and retraining of production. As is known, is currently the most popular economic and legal professions, which caused a glut of the market data industry professionals, while the share of engineers ND specialists is low.
In this regard, the new 2001102 academic year is scheduled to increase government grants to the engineering field, which should encourage applicants to enter the technical professions, and thereby create a balance in the market economy of the country. In general, we can safely say that higher education area, a major research centers can provide the basis for all reforms – the establishment of the intellectual, spiritual potential, his professional, scientific and educational elite. Currently in the region there are 11 higher education institutions and 17 branches.
Of the total number of higher educational institutions (including branches) state are 12 or 42. 9%, non-state – 16 (57. 1%). Dynamics of the number, admission and graduation of students for 1 0 years is shown in the diagram: The chart shows that during the period from 1 996/97 to 2000/01 academic year, the total number of students, their reception and production increased. Number of students for 10 years increased by 47. 1% to 35. 9 thousand people, taking up 30%, production . By 63. 9%. Compared with the previous academic year the number of students increased by 6. Million people (20. 4%). Despite the fairly extensive en;ark of private educational institutions are trained in them 7. 5 thousand, which is 3. 6 times smaller than the number of students in public universities (28. 4 thousand). In recent years, Astrakhan has been a tendency expanding network of private higher education institutions. The republic of East Astrakhan Region 4 largest number of private universities and the number of students taint in them after the city of Almost and South Astrakhan and Granddad regions.
Number of students of public and private universities on the forms of training for the 2000/01 academic year The second year of admission to higher education institutions is carried out on models for the formation of the student contingent on government grants and loans by the complex testing. The number of entrants in 2000 reached 14. 2 thousand people, compared with 1999 increased by 29. 2%. Of the total number of students (1 1. 3 this. ) Taken at 1 year in 2000/01, 85. 8% are trained under contract with full reimbursement of costs, 6. % through public education loans, 7. 6% – government grants. The largest intake of students in 2000 was promoted Semifinalists University. Sharing (2605 peers. ), East- Astrakhan State university (1 943 peers. ), East-Astrakhan Technical University. Shrinkable (1762 persons), University of Semifinalists (880 peers. ) East Humanitarian Institute (718 people).. The share of the aforementioned educational institutions accounted for 70% of the total enrollment of students in the area.
High competition in the labor market and increasing skill requirements were the motivation for obtaining a population of higher or secondary higher education. For this reason, changed the age structure of students. Compared with the 1999/00 academic year enrollment of students geed 17-20 years decreased by 3. 8 percentage points, the same percentage of students in older age groups increased by a similar amount. Training specialists in the field are carried out from 30 specialty groups. The highest percentage of students in the overall structure has a group of humanities (21. %), education (18. 0%), economic (16. 8%), science (5. 4%) and medical (2. 9%). The changing market fluctuations of the labor market is reflected in education, in this regard in many large institutions is the reorientation of the new specialty. For example, in East Astrakhan State University in the new school year opened the following specialties: Chemical, forensic and environmental expertise, “Apology”, “Tourism” and “Sociology and Demography. ” In East Astrakhan Technical University.
Shrinkable – “The Land Registry and valuation of real estate”, “Improving the wear resistance and restoration of parts of machines and apparatus”, “Software and hardware of computers and networks. ” In Semifinalists State University. Sharing – ” Economics and management of water transport”, “Standardization and certification of agricultural products”, “Animal husbandry”, “The technology of fish products, and fat”, “Technology of meat ND dairy products”, “Customs”, “International Economic Relations “and” State and municipal management.
Analysis of current state of secondary and higher education suggests that market transformation is firmly entrenched in the educational sphere. Graduate School moved to a new model of education. Observed expansion of the secondary and higher education by increasing the number of branches. The preference is given to applicants eminent colleges and higher education institutions, mainly state, which has firmly established itself in the domestic market of educational services and re a kind of guarantor of quality education, as evidenced by the long period of their operation.