A theory of news media coverage and treatment Extending the theory The nature of the news media Business interactions with the news media Recourse in disputes with the media 3-2 ; Role played by news media ; Providing information to the public about matters affecting people’s lives and the society ; Identifying marketed issues and stimulating action that affects their progress 3-3 Chapter 3 News Media and Marketed Issues 2 By Hosannas-Some The news media is.. The “fourth branch” of government (Thomas Carlyle) In the American political system, the fourth branch of government refers to a group that influences the three branches of governance defined in the American Constitution (legislative, Judicial and executive) Such groups can include the press (an analogy to the French Fourth Estate), the people, and interest group. 3-4 0 The “Fourth Estate” (Edmund Burke) The Fourth Estate (or fourth estate) is a societal or lattice force or institution whose influence is not consistently or officially recognized. Fourth Estate” most commonly refers to the news media; especially print Journalism or “The Press”. 3-5 0 Editors and Journalists are the “officeholders” of the institution. 0 An office-holder is a person who has an important official position in an organization or government 3-6 The Role of the News Media in Marketed Issues ; Identifying marketed issues ; Placing issues on the agendas of firms In addition to serving as an arena in which marketed issues are addressed, the news media lays an important role in identifying marketed issues and placing issues on the agendas of firms. -7 ; Alert the public, activists, interest groups, and government officeholders to marketed issues ; Raise concerns about the policies and practices of firms ; Provide information about the likely effects of alternative courses of action 3-8 ; Reduce the costs of collective action ; Enhance a marketed strategy by conveying information provided by a firm or interest group ; Represent interests and principles consistent with the news media’s perception of its role in society 3-9 In Conclusion ; The news media: ; Guards its independence ; Is careful to avoid being used as part of a marketed strategy ; The news media has incentives to cover an issue which is of interest to viewers and readers 3-10 Figure 3. 1 – The News Media and the Environment of Business A Theory of News Media Coverage and Treatment ; Forms of treatment: ; Straightforward presentation of facts and description of events ; Interpretation of the facts and events ; Exploration of their potential significance and ramifications ; Advocacy of a course of action 3-12
A Theory of News Media Coverage and Treatment – Explanatory variables ; Intrinsic audience interest in the issue ; An issue’s societal significance as perceived by the news media 3-13 Intrinsic Audience Interest ; The principal predictions of the intrinsic audience theory are that: ; Coverage increases with audience interest ; Treatment will be chosen to appeal to and retain an audience 3-14 Societal Significance ; The societal significance perspective views coverage and treatment as a reflection of the news media’s perception of the significance of an issue to society. This perspective reflects the media’s role in serving democracy by providing 3-15 Intrinsic Audience Interest and Societal Significance: Combining the Perspectives ; Treatment depends more on societal significance than on audience interest ; Coverage depends more on audience interest 3-16 Figure 3. – Theory of Media Coverage and Treatment 3-17 ; This theory of news media coverage and treatment is based on: ; Societal significance ; Intrinsic audience interest ; Features of stories, such as visual effects, human interest, confrontation, and controversy, are important 3-18 Newsworthiness ; The cost of coverage ; Balance and fairness 3-19 ; An issue is more newsworthy if: ; It has a degree of immediacy or urgency ; It has a human interest dimension with which the audience can identify ; If it involves a celebrity ; If it involves confrontation or controversy 3-20 ; News coverage depends on the costs of obtaining information and producing a story ; Media organizations are forced to rely on low-cost sources of information ; Cost pressures on news organizations, Journalists’ incentives to have stories aired or published, deadlines ND space constraints, and competitive pressures can result in inaccuracies in stories 3-21 ; Journalism standards and editorial controls require that a story be accurate and the treatment be balanced and fair. -22 The Nature of the News Media ; News organizations as businesses ; Primary objective is profit ; Highly competitive industry ; The profession ; Journalists are younger, better educated, and more liberal than the American public ; Journalism is governed by standards enforced by news 3-23 ; Does the news media treat issues selectively? The news media may not cover every issue under the same criteria ; Most issues are treated under controls and editorial standards 3-24 ; Bias, accuracy, and fairness ; Most marketed issues involving business are complex ; The ability to present that complexity and achieve accuracy, balance, and fairness differs considerably among media organizations 3-25 ; The Internet and citizen Journalism ; The rise of blobs and social media allows citizens to be Journalists ; Many use the Internet to comment on marketed issues affecting business developments 3-26 Business Interactions with the
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News Media ; Few companies like their activities to be publicly scrutinized ; The media guards its ; The desire for balance and the incentive to develop controversy to make stories appealing gives critics of the company an opportunity to deliver their message to the public ; Some executives agree that the media caters to intenseness sentiments ; In the case of television interviews, the control of the editing process gives the media the opportunity to select the parts of an interview that make the best story, and those may not be the parts business wants to have aired Media treatment results in oversimplification, precluding the presentation of a full account of a company’s side of the story Copyright 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 3-27 ; The need for information ; Many business issues are newsworthy ; Only business has the information that can serve as the basis for a story 3-28 ; Media strategies The unusual is usual Emphasize the consistency of business and the public interest Remember your audience Communicate through the press The medium is the message Establish credibility – not friendship 3-29 Responses and media vacuums ; Business prefers to avoid media coverage ; One tempting strategy is not to comment to the media in the hope that no story will appear 3-30 ; Media interviews ; Managers frequently grant interviews to the media and are called on to speak to the ; Anticipating issues ; When media coverage of an issue can be anticipated, the firm has the opportunity to prepare ; Unanticipated events 3-31 Figure 3. 3 – Hewlett-Packard Company Media Guidelines 3-32 Recourse in Disputes with the Media ; Private ; Recourse to the law: Defamation and libel ; Political 3-33