Emphasizes social and media-related variables that inform the process of communication “encoding context” is the larger social environment or setting within which message formulation takes place “decoding context” represents the ideas and understanding that the decoder brings to deciphering the encoded message Successful communication is contingent on the sender and receiver having some sort f common idea or notion of the subject of communication Sharing a common language is important for effective communication The medium of communication is also very important because writing something out and painting something can have two different effects Television emphasizes the visual image Writing emphasizes linearity and logic Oral speech emphasizes social context, body language and inflection (individual instance rather than the general case) In a sense, this difference defines how this course is different from one you might take in a technical or engineering school and en that takes a social science perspective; mathematical model has to do with the engineering of communication and the social model has to do with the sociology of communication Of “Mass” and “Mass Communication” When people moved from rural areas to the city they became isolated individuals without traditional bonds of loyalty and kinship and this has made people vulnerable to the influence of the mass media and totalitarian ideologies and propaganda Mass communication used to refer to large traditional corporate media such as movies, large daily newspapers, and broadcasting.
It is now much more than that because of the internet, emails can be sent anywhere in the world with a click of a button The internet started out as a way to communicate from person-to-person but now due the World Wide Web it can be used to communicate on a large (mass) scale to anyone in the world Mass communication and the mass media are fundamentally different from what they used to be. They include centrally produced, widely distributed media products, as in broadcasting, movies, and newspapers. They include widely produced and widely distributed messages, as in websites. And, they include uncommunicative interactivity on a mass scale. In today’s world mass communication is the transmission and transformation of information on a large scale no matter what specific media may be involved Three forms of organizations 1 .
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Mass communication is the production and distribution of mass information and entertainment – the traditional definition Involves the corporately financed industrial production of entertainment and information to large, unknown audiences by means of print, screen, audio, etc. Includes movies, radio, TV, books, etc. 2. Mass communication is the decentralized production and wide accessibility of information and entertainment Allows for greater participation by others Often intended for small/niche audiences Sometimes corporately or industrially produced Rarely state-driven Includes websites, blobs, films, public performances, etc. Recipients This exchange might occur through the phone, mail, email, pagers, two way radio, and fax Includes things like Skippy, Faceable Media, Mass Media, and New Media Medium: any vehicle that conveys information such as language, paintings, photos, etc.
Media is the plural of medium Mass media: vehicles through which mass communication takes place New media isn’t focus on the centralized institutional production and mass dissemination Any person equipped with the right software can produce new media New media: technologies, practices, and institutions designed to facilitate broad participation in information production and exchange on a mass scale Includes file-sharing, testing, blobs, websites, social media, etc. Convergence Bringing together of a wide range of previously separate and distinct communication technologies Due to this convergence, companies are now encompassing many different technologies, such as Rogers who has TV, radio, phones, etc.
Interactive media enables audiences to participate directly in the outcomes of programs such as Canadian idol Dimensions of Mass Media Distinct set of activities; Involving particular technological configurations; Associated, to some degree, with formally constituted institutions; Acting within certain laws, rules, and understandings; Carried out by persons occupying certain roles; Which together, convey information, entertainment, images, and words; To or among member of society. A. Distinct set of activities The way that people interpret media is what shapes our perception. A photograph an capture a small part of a larger story and draws attention away from the real issue at hand The social model of communication is a distinct set of activities because of the role media plays in shaping our perceptions of the real world, e. G. , new programs report on certain things to draw our attention away from the real issues The mathematical model of communication is a distinct activity in terms of its communicative form and function; it’s an activity distinct from other social activities B.
Particular technological configurations The reason certain technology is created isn’t necessary the way society will use it (e. G. Typewriters were created as toys) Technologies develop form and function in the context of a larger set of social interests exerting pressure and direction on their development It takes time for technology to develop its role and is constantly changing mass and new media are a set of technological configurations that bring us information and entertainment in a variety of forms C. Formally constituted institutions and organizations: private profit vs… Mandate- driven Since we are a capitalist society, owner’s first priority is to raise profits, not to produce media Radios charge people for broadcasting time so they can make a profit (e. , charge them to advertise on their stations; this can attract specific types of Canada to buy US shows than to produce their own Since profit is the main reason for media businesses to operate this can impact their credibility and their products negatively or even positively Not-for-profit media are mandate-driven (meaning their primary purpose is something other than profit; doesn’t mean they still don’t have to earn profit) D. Certain laws, rules and understandings In Canada, media isn’t as restricted because of freedom of speech and thought but there are basic rules still The Broadcasting Act is the pre-eminent statute controlling eradicating The Copyright Act transforms the expression of one’s intellectual efforts into a piece of property that can be owned (deigned to help ensure that writers and artists are paid for their work and that their work is not used without permission The Telecommunications Act focuses on the infrastructure underlying the transmission of messages E.
Persons occupying certain roles There are people who are directly employed by media organizations There are also people who are indirectly employed (lobby groups, etc. ) There are also media unions and professional associations who play strong roles in sending the message to the action and the government Advertising industry also occupies a certain role Government regulators and policy people also play an important role in the operation of the media (media is under the federal Jurisdiction) F. Information, entertainment, images and words Connotative: secondary, figurative meaning that might be associated with the word Denotative: obvious, literal or readily apparent meaning Different languages and cultures can make deciphering connotative meanings hard G. Members of society: mass audience?
Mass audience consists of individuals who bring varying degrees of engagement and variety of readings or interpretations to media content Audience members are themselves often media producers (especially on the internet) Chapter 1 – Online Textbook Mass media are illustrated to be woven into Canadian society through a legal and regulatory framework, particular types of ownership, professions, associated institutions, particular technology, available leisure time, and content. New media are framed as extending and deepening these relationships, with social media and other new media offering more opportunities for people to engage with each other, create their own media products, and engage with traditional media.