The Judging of an Individual’s character by their race did not become relevant because of the Rodney King beating, the attacks on the World Trade Center, or the Illegal aliens crossing the Mexican border. Racial Delimitation has been a reoccurring Issue for centuries. Throughout time, these Judgments and discriminations have led to unwarranted searches, racial riots and unjust prosecutions. Racial Profiling not only adds to this overwhelming issue but is upheld by the U. S. Overspent and prominent leaders. Racial profiling has caused divisions teen black men and the police, negative effects on immigration and race relations, and false imprisonment, further proving that racial profiling is not defensible public policy. The relationship between African-American men and law enforcement comes from a deeper root than Just being in a difference of power. A valid reason for the resistance that black men have toward the police could be of the pre-conceived racial stereotypes that were given to black males during slavery.
In the book Cultures In Conflict, there are two stereotypes that described African American males during the centuries of slavery: Samba and Brute. Blared describes Samba as a “buffoon”, “Irresponsible” and “servile”. Samba was “considered entertaining to the Caucasian slave owner. The Brute, introduced during the Emancipation and Reconstruction age, was portrayed as being “threatening”, “ignorant” and who steals money from the government”.
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The stereotypical image Brute has transcended to the way that not only law enforcement sees black men but how the majority of society pictures African American males as a whole. These stereotypical images have contributed to the division that is between law enforcement and African-American men. The use of these stereotypes adds to racial profiling and causes uproar in black communities. According to Profiles in Justice: Why Police Profiling Cannot Work, Arthur and law professor David A. Harris defines racial profiling as “growing out of a law enforcement tactic called criminal profiling. Harris states that, “criminal profiling Is designed to help police spot criminals by developing sets of personal and behavioral characteristics associated with particular offenses. ” (204) For instance, if young men in a certain city are known for burglarizing elders’ homes, the criminal refill for that that offense may be, race of any male, 18 to 25 years old. However, David Harrier’s research finds that, if these personal and behavioral characteristics involve race or ethnicity as a method in predicting crimes, criminal profiling can evolve into racial profiling. 204) In the article Harris writes, “Racial profiling is a crime fighting strategy – a government policy that treats African American, Latino and members or other minority groups as criminal suspects on the assumption that doing so will Increase the odds of catching The account of Robert Wilkins Is an accurate depiction of racial profiling. Robert Wilkins, a public defender traveling with members of his family, to Washington D. C. Form a funeral was pulled over by a Maryland State Police officer.
Even though Walking cousin, who Is also an African American male, was driving the rental car, Wilkins stated that he was in clear but, the trooper stated that it was “routine procedure” because the problems they had “with rental cars and drugs. ” After being forced to stand out in the dark while it rained, the troopers had the dogs sniff the car with nothing suspicious appearing. Robert Wilkins night ended “with a $105 ticket. ” Wilkins later found out that he was stopped “because of a written profile that described him perfectly, a black male in a rental car. Immigration and racial relations are also poignant topics in racial profiling, which not only affects African Americans but other minority groups such as Hispanics and Muslims. Immigration has been a topic in the Unites States for many years and illegal immigration has been in the forefront. Because of the recent influx of illegal aliens trying to cross the border, the government has taken extreme assure to end the problem of illegal immigration. In recent years, law enforcement has begun to uncover illegal aliens by profiling everyone who is Mexican American.
In the state of Phoenix police officers have been known to stop Mexican Americans and search their cars because of their race. In the book 12 Angry Men, Arizona has given a new category to racial profiles such as “driving while black,” this racial profile is called “looking Mexican. ” According to the text, the governor of Arizona signed in law in April 2010 that would require police officers to “stop and question” anyone that as “reasonable suspicion” of not having the proper immigration papers. Being able to pass racially charged laws like this will allow profiling of more innocent Hispanic Americans.
Racial profiling also had a negative effect on racial relations. After September 1 lath, Muslims were not only chastised in public by hecklers and bigots but also in international affairs. For example, according to Lanai Gunner in the book 12 angry men, in the aftermath of the attack on the twin towers, airport officials began intensify Arabs as “flying while Muslim” in an effort to eliminate another terrorist attack on the United States, however, this attempt to protect the country only added to the racial discrimination that was already being multiplied.
Even though America is suppose to protect citizens and give them liberal freedoms, in Justice like this is upheld by the United States Supreme Court. For instance, “President George W. Bush opined that racial profiling is wrong and vowed to end it in America. However, Just two years his Justice Department banned federal law enforcement agencies from practicing racial profiling, but with the standard exception for national security investigations. ” The nature of the term “racial profiling” leads not only to racial division and discrimination but also false imprisonments.
When police officers use racial profiling they are only seeing the physical or the skim of the surface, they are not seeing however, the personality and character which more often than not leads to mistaken identity. In the stories of the many men in the book 12 angry men, Byron Pain was a graduate of Harvard Law School, recounts his story of being falsely accused and arrested outside of a New York City night club because of his profile, Ewing black. Pain was out at the club with two of his family members.
After leaving the club Pain and his companions witnessed a disturbance between two groups of black males where bottles were being thrown. Trying to avoid the shattered glass, the young men fleeted from the scene, only to be accused by the Caucasian bouncers of the club of starting the rescue. Pain denied the accusation however; the bouncers had the young men arrested under false pretenses. The young men were brother went through months of false reports, witnesses and evidence before all charges were dropped against them.
Each of the young men were extremely intelligent, had no arrest history and bound to make great achievements in their life, but according to this account, no matter what educational background or career position someone has, racial appearances will more often than not take precedent. In addition, the argument on race and racial profiling is a case that will more than likely never be solved because of the racial stereotypes and physicality that have been inherited by society. David Harris states that “racial profiling is having a corrosive impact on the relationship between the police and the African American ,
Latino and other minority communities they are responsible to protect and serve” Harris believes that this can only lead to diminution of respect for law enforcement, thus making effective law enforcement harder to achieve. (194) Scott Johnson, Arthur of Better Unsafe than (Occasionally) Sorry, states that, “David Harris of distorting the data on crimes committed and visualization according to race,(193) but it has been clearly shown that racial profiling is not defensible public policy due to the overwhelming research, evidence and firsthand accounts that are given and as long as race is an issue, racial profiling will be a lasting epidemic.