As a result of Education Policy 1 968, here has been a considerable emphasis on expansion of educational facilities throughout the country. While these achievements are impressive by themselves; the problem of access, quality, quantity, utility and inadequacy of financial outlay accumulated over the years have now assumed serious proportions. In order to promote equity, it will be necessary to provide equal opportunity to all not only in access but also in the environment for achieving the target.
The essence of human development is that education must play a significant and interventionist role in remedying imbalances in the socio-economic fabric of the country. Basic education has also greatly contributed to the quality of human life, particularly with regard to life expectancy, infant mortality, learning levels and nutritional status of children, etc. Several new initiatives have been taken by the Government placing emphasis on decentralization with the participation of people at the grass root level.
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Consequently, universal basic education has vastly contributed to social justice and equity, and participative economic growth. Over the past several years there were various studies carried out in this field-but education in the rural in India is still low as compared to other entries. NEED OF SURVEY For the about said reasons the government both central and state has from time to time introduce different schemes for the proper fulfillment of education in rural reason India. These schemes have ensures the proper education in rural India.
These schemes has immensely help the children living in the rural India or those families of rural areas which are living below poverty line. Some of the schemes are: * Sara sheikhs banyan * Mid day meal scheme * Stature Gandhi balalaika vitally * Shaker brat * District primary education program * Scheme of vasoconstriction of secondary education Operation black-board scheme * Modernization scheme for madras education * Manila gymkhana But in spite of all these and many more schemes the ground implementation of these programmer is very low.
The schemes are prepared on government papers and remains there. The utility which they should be generating is not up to the expectations and so the children from the rural area are not benefited as per the objectives. The time to time survey will monitor the actual implementation of schemes,so as to determine whether the schemes are benefiting the rural people or not. FORMULATION For proper carrying out of rural survey we first formulate strategy to select the target area where this survey could be carried out. Hose outskirts of Allahabad as our target area as it is one of important city of Attar Pradesh and also have large number of villages which suites the survey. Also the areas are mostly connected through roads movement from one place to other place,which will help in data collection. The city has various offices which is the center of various schemes, which will help in getting relevant information. METHODOLOGY This rural survey was conducted using participatory approaches, including tenting with beneficiaries, interviews with villagers(about their children,school facility,etc).
I with my team made several site visits aforementioned schemes running by central government to discuss schemes implementation with people directly. In combination with these processes, the we also conducted a literature review of pertinent material (including sector-specific studies and assessments by other donors, Noose, and the Government of India, as well as research documents). FINDINGS The outcome of this survey gave us the proper status of the implementation of schemes running in rural belt. It also helps us to under why the schemes fail or it does not have the desire outcome with which it was started.
The outcome of this survey provides us with ground level data which help us in introspecting the causes of the schemes success and failure. ORGANIZATIONAL REPORT The final documentation of the data collected and their proper interpretation in the form of an organizational report is necessary . 1 also tabulated the data in sequenced manner in my report so that the understanding of the report findings becomes easier. Also the organizational report helps in analyzing the efferent government parameters about particular scheme.
The report also helps in forming corrective ways for these schemes to become successful LITERATURE REVIEW A literature review can be just a simple summary of the sources, but it usually has an organizational pattern and combines both summary and synthesis. A summary is a recap of the important information of the source, but a synthesis is a re-organization, or a reshuffling, of that information. It might give a new interpretation of old material or combine new with old interpretations. Or it might trace the intellectual progression of the field, including major debates.
And depending on the situation, the literature review may evaluate the sources and advise the reader on the most pertinent or relevant. A literature review is a body of text that aims to review the critical points of current knowledge including substantive findings as well as theoretical and methodological contributions to a particular topic. Literature reviews are secondary sources, and as such, do not report any new or original experimental work. Most often associated with academic-oriented literature, such as theses, projects a literature review usually precedes a research reports and results section.
Its ultimate goal is to bring the reader up to date with current literature on a topic and forms the basis for another goal, such as future research that may be needed in the area. A well-structured literature review IS characterized by a logical flow of ideas; current and relevant references with consistent, appropriate referencing style; proper use of terminology; and an unbiased and comprehensive view of the previous research on the topic. This chapter presents literature review of various educational schemes by government from various so races.
HISTORY OF TOPIC In spite of each of the above mentioned schemes we have chosen following five schemes for their literature review. * Sara sheikhs banyan * Stature Gandhi balalaika vitally SARA SHEIKHS BANYAN Sara Sheikhs Banyan (ASS) is the government’s flagship programmer to provide universal access to elementary education for children 6-14 years old. The scheme aims to improve enrolment, retention, and the quality of education to enable children to achieve grade appropriate levels of learning. It also aims to eliminate gender differences and gaps be;en different social categories.
ASS was initiated in 2001 following recommendations from the state education ministers’ conference in 1998. Although the 86th Amendment to the Constitution enacted in 2002 made elementary education a fundamental right, the Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act that personalities the provision of free and compulsory education was not passed by the Parliament until August 2009. Funding The costs for ASS are shared by the centre and states in the ratio 85. 15. In 2004-05, the central government imposed an education ices of 2 percent on all taxes to mobiles additional funds for ASS and the Mid Day Meal Scheme.
In 2008-09, this surcharge was increased to 3 percent. How does it work? The National Mission for Sara Sheikhs Banyan under the chairmanship of the Prime Minister has overall responsibility of the programmer. It comprises of a governing council, which is the apex policy planning body for elementary education and the executive committee, under the chairmanship of the Minister of Human Resource Development (MOHR), which carries out all the functions of the Mission in accordance with the policies laid down by the governing council. The Mission coordinates with State Departments for
Education and the Village Education Committees (Eves), created by the State Education Departments to manage the educational affairs of villages. Implementation at the district is overseen by the District Collector, Magistrate or the Chief Executive Officer of the Gila parish. Social science institutes of national stature have been given the work of monitoring in states and union territories. Ministry Department Education Goal Ministry of Human Resource Development Department of School Education and Literacy Sector Universalism elementary education Output/ Scheme Indicators Enrolment 2002
Expiration date RSI. 1 3, 100 core Shared by centre and states Year of Inception 2010, extended to 2012 2009-2010 Budget outlay Objectives of the ASS programmer 1 . Ensure that all children are in school (Education Guarantee Centre, Alternate School, ‘ Back-to-School’ camp by 2003, since revised to 2005) 2. AIl children complete five years of primary schooling by 2007 3. All children complete eight years of elementary schooling by 2010 4. Focus on elementary education of satisfactory quality with emphasis on education for life 5.
Bridge all gender and social category gaps at primary stage by 2007 and at elementary education level by 2010 6. Sanitaria retention by 2010 S. S. A guidelines INTERVENTION I NORMS Teacher * One teacher for every 40 children in primary and upper primary * At least two teachers in a primary school. * One teacher for every class in the upper primary School / Alternative Schooling facility I Within one kilometer of every habitation. * Provision for opening of new schools as per State norms or for setting up EGGS like schools in unseeded habitations.
I upper Primary schools I *As per requirement, based on the number of children completing primary education, up to a ceiling of one per primary school/section for every two primary schools. I Classrooms I * A room for every teacher or for every grade/class, whichever is lower in primary & upper primary, with the provision that there would be two class rooms with verandah to every primary school with at least two teachers. * A room for Head-Master in upper primary’ school/section. Free textbooks * TO all girls/SC/SST children at primary ; upper primary level within an upper ceiling of RSI. 150/- per child. State to continue to fund free textbooks being currently provided from the State Plans. * In case any State s partially subsidizing the cost of textbooks being supplied to children in Elementary classes, then the assistance under ASS would be restricted to that portion of the cost of the books which is being borne by the children. Civil works I * Programmer funds on Civil Works shall not exceed the ceiling of 33% of the entire project cost approved by the PAP on the basis of perspective plan prepared for the period till 2010. * This ceiling of 33% would not include the expenditure on maintenance and repair of buildings.
However, in a particular year’s annual plan provision for civil works can be noninsured Upton 40% of the annual plan expenditure depending on the priority assigned to various components of the programmer in that year, within the overall project ceiling of 33%. * For improvement of school facilities, BRB/CRY construction. * Cars could also be used as an additional room. * No expenditure to be incurred on construction of office buildings Districts to prepare infrastructure Plans. Maintenance and repair of school buildings I * Only through school management committees/Eves * Upton RSI. 5000 per year as per specific proposal by the school committee. Must involve elements of community contribution. * Expenditure On maintenance and repair of building would not be included for calculating the 33% limit for civil works. * Grant will be available only for those schools which have existing building of their own. I Upgrading of EGGS to regular school or setting up off new primary school as per State norm I * Provision for T LEE @ RSI. 10,000/- per school. * TALE as per local context and need. * Involvement of teachers and parents necessary in TALE selection and procurement. * VICE/socio-village level appropriate body to decide on best mode of procurement.
Requirement of successful running of EGGS centre for two years before it is considered for upgrading. * Provision for teacher & classrooms. I TALE for upper-primary I * @ RSI. 50000 per school for uncovered schools. * As per local specific requirement to be determined by the teachers/school committee. * School committee to decide on best mode of procurement, in consultation with teachers * School Committee may recommend district level procurement if there are advantages of scale. I Schools grant * RSI. 2000/- per year per primary/upper primary school for replacement of non-functional school equipment.
Transparency in utilization * To be spent only by VICE/SCM I Teacher grant * RSI. 500 per teacher per year in primary and upper primary. * Transparency in utilization Teacher training I * Provision of 20 days in-service course for all teachers each year, 60 days refresher course for untrained teachers already employed as teachers, and 30 days orientation for freshly trained recruits @ RSI. 70/- per day * Licit cost is indicative; WOUld be lone in non residential training programmer. * Includes all training cost * Assessment of capacities for effective training during appraisal will determine extent Of coverage.
Support for SECRET/DIET under existing Teacher Education Scheme I State Institute of Educational Management and Training (SAMMIE) * One time assistance Upton RSI. 3 core. * States have to agree to sustain * Selection criteria for faculty to be rigorous I Training of community leaders I * For a maximum of 8 persons in a village for 2 days in a year – preferably women. @ RSI. 30/- per day per person I Provision for disabled children * Upton RSI. 1200/- per child for integration of disabled children, as per specific proposal, per year. District plan for children with special needs will be formulated within the RSI. 200 per child norm. * Involvement of resource institutions to be encouraged. I Research, Evaluation, supervision and monitoring I * Upton RSI. 1400 per school per year. * Partnership with research and resource institutions, poll of resource teams with State specific focus. * Priority to development of capacities for appraisal and supervision through resource/research institutions and on an effective MIS. * Provision for regular school mapping/micro- planning for updating of household data. By creating pool of resource persons, providing travel grant and honorarium for monitoring, generation of community-based data, research tidies, cost of assessment and appraisal terms & their field activities, classroom observation by resource persons. * Funds to be Spent at national, state, district, sub- district, school level out of the overall per school allocation. * RSI. 100 per school per year to be spent at national level. * Expenditure at State/district/BRB/CRY/School level to be decided by State/UT, This would include expenditure on appraisal, supervision, MIS, classroom observation, etc.
Support to SECRET over and above the provision under the Teacher Education scheme may also be provided. * Involvement of resource institutions willing to undertake state specific responsibilities. I Management Cost I * Not to exceed 6% of the budget of a district plan. * To include expenditure on office expenses, hiring of experts at various levels after assessment of existing manpower, POLL etc. ; * Priority to experts in MIS, community planning processes, civil works, gender etc. Depending on capacity available in a particular district. * Management costs should be used to develop effective teams at State/District/Block/Custer levels. Identification of personnel for BRB/CRY should be a priority in the pre-project hash itself so that a team is available for the intensive process based planning. I Innovative activity for girls’ education, early childhood care ; education, interventions for children belonging to SC/SST community, computer education specially for upper primary level I * Upton to RSI. 15 lack for each innovative project and RSI. 50 lack for a district per year will apply for ASS * ICE and girls education interventions to have unit costs already approved under other existing schemes.
Block Resource Centers/ Cluster Resource Centers * There would be ordinarily one BRB in each Community Development (CD) Block. However, in states, where the sub- district educational administrative Structure like educational blocks or circles, have jurisdictions which are not co-terminus with the CD Blocks, then the State may opt to have a BRB in such a case the overall expenditure on Bars and Cars in a CD Block, both non-recurring and recurring, would not be more than the overall expenditure that would have been incurred on Bars and Cars in case if only one BRB per CD Block were opened. BRB/CRY to be located in school campus as far as possible. * RSI. 6 lack ceiling for BRB building construction wherever required * RSI. lack for CRY construction wherever required-should be used as an additional classroom in schools. * Total cost of non-school (BRB and CRY) construction in any district should not exceed 5% of the overall projected expenditure under the programmer in any year. * Deployment of up to 20 teachers in a block with more than 100 schools; 10 teachers in smaller Blocks in Bars and Cars put together. * Provision of furniture, etc. @ RSI. 1 lack for a BRB and RSI. 10,000 for a CRY * contingency grant of RSI. 2,500 for a BRB and RSI. 2500 for a CRY, prayer. * Meetings, Travel allowance : RSI. 500/- per month per BRB, RSI. 00/- per month per CRY * IT_M Grant : RSI. 5000/- per year per BRB, RSI. 1000/- per year per CRY * Identification of BRB/CRY personnel after intensive selection process in the preparatory phase itself. I Interventions for out of school chi lilied *As per norms already approved under Education, Guarantee Scheme ; Alternative and Innovative Education, providing for the following find of interventions- * Setting up Education Guarantee Centers in unseeded habitations. * Setting up other alternative schooling models. Bridge Courses, remedial courses, Back-to-School Camps with a focus on mainstreaming out of school children into regular schools. Preparatory activities for micromanaging, household surveys, studies, community manipulation, school-based activities, office equipment, training and orientation at all levels, etc. * As per specific proposal of a district, duly recommended by the State. Urban areas, within a district or metropolitan cities may be treated as a separate unit for planning as required WHAT A DISTRICT PLAN MUST HAVE Large scale participation of women and other disadvantaged groups in the planning process.
A clear gender focus in all the activities under the plan. Every intervention must be gender sensitive. Large scale evidence of school-based activities like Bal meals, Justas, sports, AMA bet sameness, etc. Evidence of : * interface with elected representatives at all levels. * process based constitution Of committees at each level * Institutional arrangements for decentralized decision making * consultation with teachers * community contribution for universal elementary deed auction * school mapping and micromanaging habitation wise/village wise/cluster wise/urban slum wise/ward wise * Joint Bank accounts in each school/VICE/School
Committees to receive community contribution and to spend government grants * focus on making education relevant to life Us reeve of * available school facilities, including non-governmental educational institutions; * 0-6 age group children and facilities for their education and development; * 6-14 age children through preparation of Education Registers and identification of institution for schooling. Relocation of teacher units taking into account the presence of the non-governmental sector and its impact on school attendance.
Assessment of * training needs and survey of capacities for orientation and training with needs, school-wise/habitation-wise of additional existing institutions; school facilities, teachers, etc. ; * school wise/EGGS centre wise incentives of meals, scholarships, uniforms, free textbooks and notebooks, etc. ; teach inning-learning material; * Information System; * available financial resources and priority of needs. Community ownership of the district plan. A plan for quality education including a plan for * early childhood care and education; * children with special needs. Incorporation of issues like local specific school timings, etc.