The iris case was not a success because the supreme court agreed with the board, but the second case In 1953, came to the agreement that segregation was wrong on the grounds that separating black students from others that are the same age and Intelligence as them because of their race, “generates a feeling of Inferiority… That may affect their hearts and minds In a way unlikely ever to be undone,” (Chief Justice Earl Warren). This was a major success for the NAACP although Implementing the new ruling proved to be more difficult because the federal government did not force he state governments to apply them to their cities.
This ruling did change some districts but most did not comply. Many schools and school districts were closed because the cities would have rather close them than integrate. Also because of President Eisenhower lack of support, the ruling was never enforced therefore making the ruling pointless. Similar problems occurred with other rulings and acts such as the Civil Rights Act of 1957 which attempted to end voter discrimination, but ended up being a useless law because of the loopholes left by the federal overspent.
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The only few times where the NAACP changes of the law actually worked such as the case about the arrest of Rosa Parks for refusing to give up her bus seat, and that was only because of the non-violent movement that got the publics attention and more involvement in the issue. The other legal successes for the black community such as the Voting Rights Act of 1965 which made it so African Americans could vote without being taxed, given impossible tasks, or being intimidated by racists groups; this time not leaving loopholes.
This act along with there beneficial acts such as the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 were mostly due to the many marches, movements, and riots that demanded change and the assassination of JEFF which happened right after he publicly announced that he was for the rights of African Americans by trying to put through the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Because this was one of the last things that JEFF was remembered for, LB had to live up the citizen’s expectations for him to do the same as JEFF so that he would not have died In vain.
In addition, the groups AIM and CLC participated in the Civil Rights Movements. In the event of Birmingham In 1963 lead by CLC was a major focus for the call rights activists. This event resulted In church bombings as the group CLC and other protesters marched for their rights and this movement later turned Into massive violence from the white society. As a continuation of Birmingham, James Bevel gave Dry. King the Idea to use children for marches arrested, and Jailed and more chaos prevailed.
In (Source E) It displays a photograph from the event of the Birmingham Marches during the time period of 1963. It shows he violence and a African American male was being attacked by the local police with police dogs. This event was somewhat successful at the end because stores were desegregated and some other public places. In the event of the Meredith March in 1966, Its main purpose was to protest against racism and other civil rights activists, including Dry. King and his group AIM, CLC, along with SYNC continued this march to protest for their civil rights in 1966.
The start of this march was from James Meredith attending the University of Mississippi and was rejected his acceptance from the allege because of his race which was African American and James Meredith filed a complaint to the Court systems and the court ruled that the University of Mississippi was managing a policy of segregation. In the duration of this Many race riots broke out in the result of this setting. There was not only violence against the African Americans but there was violence against the U.
S Marshals who were helping the African Americans. Referring back to the James Meredith march “March against Fear” the African Americans faced violence as well as when they were registering to vote. In he March James Meredith was shot and the Civil Rights activists Dry. King and Carmichael decided to finish the march on Meredith behalf. Therefore, this event was somewhat successful because it allowed the U. S to pay attention to the African Americans although it was not particularly in the way that King and other civil rights activists wanted to.
The civil rights organizations the CORE and SYNC both proved to be vitally important during the civil rights movement. They often times worked in conjunction in order to work toward racial equality. Their first major movement was he Sit Ins in 1960 where college students refused to leave diners until served. The next thing was the Freedom Rides in 1961 in which black students tried to ride across in order to test the laws banning racial segregation on international buses.
This effort was a failure in that there was extreme violence against the riders. “The racist mob had attacked with iron bars, and even bombs. Passengers escaped right before the bus burst into flames and it wasn’t until policemen shot into the air that the mob dispersed” (Source A). After the Freedom Rides SYNC turned its attention to the Albany movement (1962) in which students tried to desegregate the entire public sector of the city. It failed because the police never got violent, and after CLC Joined they didn’t allow King to stay in Jail.
Malcolm X an influential leader of black Muslims used these types of instances to Justify the idea that “There’s no such thing as a nonviolent revolution and that the revolution is based on concepts of property, independence, freedom, Justice and equality’ (Source D). In 1994 SYNC attempted a new movement called Freedom Summer in which northern white students attempted o get blacks to register to vote. The southern states viewed it as “a planned invasion in which Northern students are causing problems under the pretext of bringing Freedom” (Source B).
The huge difference between the northern mentality of equality to all verses the southern mentality of white and better than blacks and stay out of our business led to a horrifically violent summer. The very next year SYNC went to Selma, Alabama in order to register voters, but the police had a violent response. During a speech at Howard Lyndon Johnson said “The words “Give me overcome discrimination I will sent to Congress a law designed to eliminate illegal barriers. (Source F).