Year 10 Geography summary Australia: * South Eastern Hemisphere * Latitude 10oS-44oS * Longitude 113oE ??? 154oE * Part of Asia-pacific region Aid:
International Aid ??? assistance developed countries give to developing countries to encourage economic growth and improve living standards AusAID (Australian Agency for International Development) ??? manages Australian aid and contracts work out to companies and NGOs (Non-Government Organisations) which deliver aid projects and train local people to continue them Main aim ??? to help with development and respond to emergencies and disasters Bilateral Aid ??? the transfer of funds directly from one govt to govt of another country Multilateral aid ??? transfer of funds from one govt through international agency or organisation Tied Aid ??? aid given under conditions of purchasing goods from the country providing the aid Australians believe that giving aid makes a difference in the lives of the less fortunate, improves the nation’s security and creates jobs for Australians Future Challenges ??? Population: Density of Australia is low, about 2 people for every km2 * Growth rate is 1. 9% * Factors affecting population growth rate include * Fertility rate- number of children born * Mortality rate- number of deaths * Net migration- people entering Australia minus people leaving Australia * The present population is degrading the land and the environment can barely support the population * However increasing the population will lead to greater economic growth and a better standard of living * Challenges regarding the population include: * Ageing population * fall in number of children * increase of life expectancy * baby boomers reaching retirement age Government’s response: providing aged care, medical and health care facilities, retirement villages and services for the aged. Superannuation has been made compulsory and workers are encouraged to work longer * Distribution * Majority of population found in urban areas near the coast * Putting increasing pressure on coastal environments and leaving inland areas in decline * ‘sea change’ is a move to a more relaxed lifestyle close to water or the coast * People are leaving rural areas due to shortage of work, natural disasters, closing of traditional industries, and attraction of education, employment and recreation in urban areas Geographical Issues: Geographical Issues involves the interaction of human and physical environments.
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Must have: * A spatial dimension: where and why the issue is occurring * An ecological dimension: the way humans interact with the human and physical environments * A particular scale: either at a local, regional, state, national or international level * Geographical processes: the physical and human forces that operate to cause the issue * Different perceptions: the range of viewpoints or opinions about the issue * Different groups involved: such as residents of the community, governments and businesses Civics: the knowledge of effective ways individuals, groups and governments can influence the decision making process Citizenship: involves action or exercising your rights to influence the decision making process to ensure and fair and sustainable outcome RAP: Step 1: Aim, Step 2: Questions, Step 3:data, Step 4:techniques, Step 5:collection, Step 6:processing, Step 7: presenting, Step 8: action Issues in Australian Environment: Spatial Inequality ??? refers to the unequal distribution of the resources and opportunities for different people in places.
It describes the uneven distribution of wealth in society. * People and resources are spread unevenly across the continent and result in large variations in the wealth and opportunities avaible Land and water management- for a dry continent, sustaining the quality of the soil and providing adequate water are challenging tasks. * 15. 5 million hectares of land in Aust. Is unusable due to erosion and salt * Salinity of water has weakened transport infrastructure such as roads and railways and weakened the tourism industry. Coastal Management- managing the conflict between the most populated area and the fragile, changing natural environment. The Australian coastline is under threat due to this. Expansion of human settlement and tourism is placing enormous pressures on sand dunes, ecosystems, wetlands, waterways and woodlands in the Australian coastline * Brings sewerage, contaminated water and stormwater runoff into the ocean * Litter and chemical pollution affect these areas Air Quality- looks at how the increasing sensitivity of the atmosphere can be managed in a growing industrialised and transport-oriented society. * Affects peoples breathing, cause heart problems and cancer * 80% due to car fumes, factories, clearing forests and burning coal for electricity Waste Management- creative, practical and sustainable ways to handle the growing piles of waste. * 1. 0 tonnes of garbage is sent to landfill each year for each Australian * Landfill uses up urban and rural land, contaminates soil and underground water, also creates methane Urban growth and decline- looks at issues relating to the continuing growth of Australian cities. * Australians prefer to live in urban centres rather than rural areas * Advantages of urban areas include access to jobs, entertainment, hospitals, schools, social networks, banking etc. Responding to the issues * Governments can educate the public * Australians need to act * Federal govt needs to make decisions on the key challenges * Funds will be needed * Immediate action by everyone so that further damage can be avoided and some can be repaired Ecological Dimensions: describes the relationship between the people and the environments and the effects they have on each other Urban growth and decline