It is also a concern for human beings. “[Over seven hundred] million people do not have access to safe, clean drinking water [and] 4,000 children die each day from unsafe water” (Clean Water Campaign). Based on the death toll, the effects of water pollution are undeniably devastating. Indeed, it is a perpetual struggle across the globe. One method of action is to become familiar with the different types of pollutants such as disease-causing agents, oxygen-demanding wastes, plant nutrients, organic chemicals, and radioactive materials, and to discover techniques to reduce their presence.
It is essential to know the effect of disease-causing agents in order to decrease the illnesses of the population. Disease-causing agents, also known as pathogens, are viruses or bacteria that enter the body and cause an array of symptoms. Guardia lamb, for example, derives from human feces and causes a parasitic disease known as Guardians. Although it is a global disease, it is most common in developing countries where “nearly 33% of people [in these regions] have had [Guardians]” (Parasites – Guardia).
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These countries possess inadequate sewage treatment, water scarcity, and overpopulation, which all contribute to the expansion of Guardians. A majority of pathogenic microbes are linked to several species such as parasitic worms, Salmonella, and Circumscription. Although it varies by gender, race, and age, parasitic worms typically cause Sadomasochists, which include abdominal pain, skin rash, and chronic fatigue. In contrast, Salmonella produces diarrhea, nausea, and abdominal pain, while Circumscription induces dehydration and weight loss (Hogan).
Awareness of these diseases can reduce the death toll and improve the quality of life. Another factor that can disturb human health ND water purification is filthy drinking water, which produces infectious diseases. “The most common illness associated in water polluted by sewage is [Gastroenteritis]. It [can have some] of the following symptoms: nausea, vomiting, stomachache, diarrhea, headache, and five’ (Brandenburg). Generally, wastewater treatment of any kind is an oddity in several countries, which explains the fatality associated with low-quality drinking water.
One of the most common types of bacteria in water is E. Coli. In Safe Water Publications, the author states potential health effects of its levels and ways o condense it. Water quality standards are used to determine whether or not a particular E. Coli level is adequate. The bacteria is mainly observed for its tendency to identify fecal contamination in polluted water (Brayer). Despite E. Colic’s role as a disease-causing agent, it is capable of detecting pollutants in water. Other types of bacteria among E. Coli also possess the trait of identifying contaminants.
Fecal chloroform is a bacteria that is a viral pollutant of water bodies. Although it is not necessarily harmful or an indicator of feces, it does specify a possibility of harmful pathogens in water. Since the bacteria is connected to human and animal waste, it can be washed into creeks, rivers, streams, or lakes during various types of precipitation. Human and animal waste can lead to numerous diseases, and poor hygiene can heighten its extent. The intensity of untreated waste can pollute river systems, lakes, and other water bodies.
Diseases such as cholera, typhoid, Sadomasochists, infectious hepatitis, and polio can result from a lack of proper Waste disposal. Consequently, this causes four percent of all the world’s deaths and accounts for nearly six percent of the disabled population Safe Drinking Water Is Essential: Human and Animal Waste). Nesting for bacteria is the only reliable way to know if your water is safe [as] the New York State Department of Health recommends that well owners test their water for chloroform bacteria at least once a year” (Chloroform Bacteria in Drinking Water Supplies).
If these water bodies are used as drinking water sources, the bacteria can still exist in drinking water if left untreated. Another component that can disturb drinking water are hazardous wastes found in fertilizers and fecal material. Oxygen-demanding wastes, such as nutrients from fertilizers and fecal waste, re substances that consume oxygen as they decay in water. These wastes can cause acid rain, especially when the water and surrounding soil cannot neutralize it, as well as affect marine life. As the acidity escalates, many marine animals and plants will decrease (Figure 1).
Aside from acid rain, carbon dioxide from water and air pollution is accumulating unwanted changes in ocean acidity due to atmospheric increases. On top of that, “oceans [already] absorb about one-third of that carbon dioxide, which results in acidification from the formation of carbonic acid” (American Chemical Society). Although it is receiving little public attention, the changes have already influenced shellfish populations and commercial fisheries in coastal regions. An example of oxygen-demanding waste is sewage.
This waste matter is washed away in sewers or drains for dumping, which are usually in the form of feces or dirty water. One type of waste matter is domestic sewage, which has an extensive assortment of impurities. It originates mainly from kitchen, bathroom, and laundry sources. When sewage enters a lake or stream, microorganisms decompose the organic materials. Oxygen is consumed in the process as microorganisms use it in their metabolism. Solid waste entering landfills has a solemn effect on the environment; however, it is not the prime disposal problem.
Safety regulations must be enacted in order to regulate sewage disposal for everyone. At this time, certain businesses are exempt from these guidelines. For example, “cruise ships are allowed to release treated sewage wherever they sail… They are also permitted to release untreated gray water – wastewater from dishwashers, baths, showers, laundries, sinks, and wash basins” (Brandenburg). Clearly, wastewater needs to be taken under control to lessen threats to public health, protection, and the environment.
Similarly, plant nutrients also come from some of these chemicals and can contribute to water pollution. Plant nutrients are necessary chemical elements for plant growth. Despite their benefit, these nutrients are a cause for concern in water pollution. In the Gulf of Mexico, the Dead Zone is enlarging and pushing marine life into the coast. An overflow Of nutrients, such as farming fertilizers, has enhanced algae production in the ocean. While algae consume large mounts of oxygen, water bodies dry out, killing marine life in the process. As well as causing an increase in the algae blooms that can cause ‘Dead Zones,’ agricultural nitrates have been identified as a factor in the growth of toxic ‘red tide’ algae and high levels in drinking water can also pose a health risk to humans, especially children” (Ford). Other factors that are affected include agriculture, livestock, and poultry farming which can be sources Of a wide range of pollutants that find their way into the water supply through run-off. Pollutants from nutrients can have major effects on water sources y dropping oxygen levels, inhibiting the progression of plants, and suffocating fish.
Most water bodies hold excess nutrients and require treatment before they can be used as freshwater sources. Farmers and homeowners are unknowingly contributing to water pollution by using fertilizers composed of phosphates. Issues ascend when the fertilizers are scattered or spilled onto solid surfaces like streets, driveways, and sidewalks. Although a few grass clippings mowed into the street may look innocent, together they have an impact on water quality due to the pesticides that they carry.
Research studies indicate that 80 percent of the phosphorous from urban settings comes from lawn clippings and leaves that end up in street gutters” (Placental Colorado – Phosphate Fertilizers & Water Pollution). Human activities such as lawn maintenance can have a major influence on water purity, but other actions, specifically franking and drilling, can play a major role in polluting water. Organic chemicals derive from raw and treated sewage, city run-off, manufacturing overflows, and farm wastes. Franking and drilling can play a main role in contaminating water supplies.
Although this robber has mainly affected western Pennsylvania, it can spread to other states if no action takes place. Oil and gas companies do not feel pressured to follow regulations, and they are shockingly exempt from the Safe Drinking Water Act and other significant environmental safeguards. According to the Pea’s Office of Research and Development, studies “indicated that while people are using products containing organic chemicals, they can expose themselves and others to very high pollutant levels, and elevated concentrations can persist in the air long after the activity is completed” (Pollution Control).
In When Franking Comes to Town, Local Residents Have Little Recourse, the writer traveled to western Pennsylvania to talk to people about living on the frontline of the natural gas development. The residents showed her their filthy water supplies (Figure 2), blaming drilling or franking as the cause. They have even witnessed their tap water bursting into flames (Figure 3). State and federal safeguards are too weak, and enforcement is completely inadequate to do anything. Of the 4,596 franking sites operating in Pennsylvania between 2008 and 2011 companies violated environmental laws 3,355 times, [as dated in the study released by Penn Environment Research and Policy Center]” (Beanlike). Therefore, the Natural Resources Defense Council has created the Community Franking Defense Project to provide towns and local governments with the legal and policy tools that they need to protect themselves from these destructive activities. Another factor of organic chemicals is garbage. It has dramatically affected large water bodies such as the Pacific Ocean.
Since plastic is known for being a lightweight, long lasting and an omnipresent, disposable artifact in society, it is the most common airbag in the trash patch. Plastic can drift along for hundreds of miles before being trapped in a gyred and decomposing over time. Trash in the Pacific Ocean is doubling in size every decade and is now believed to be roughly twice the size of Texas (Figure 5). Observers believe that most of the trash is caught in gyres, which swirl them together in one giant whirlpool. “Scientists from the Legality Marine Research Foundation say that fish tissues contain some of the same chemicals as the plastic.
The scientists speculate that toxic chemicals are leaching into fish tissue from the plastic they eat” Whoosh). Moreover, the food chain can be abruptly disturbed as aquatic life consumes plastic, and humans, in turn, can be harmed by consuming these sea creatures (Figure 4). Another element that can affect the Pacific Ocean are radioactive materials, which are leaked into the ocean from sources ranging from nuclear power plants to mining facilities. Radioactive materials, for instance, production of nuclear weapons, generate radioactive wastes in the form of liquid, gas, or solid.
In Japan, nuclear plant workers have poured over 1 1 ,OHO tons of contaminated water onto the Pacific Ocean to make room for more highly radioactive substance that have leaked at the site. Though the contaminated water contains radioactivity as well, it is still far lower than the radioactive substance. According to BBC News, the water that was being released into the ocean contains “some 100 times the legal limit of radiation – a relatively low level” (Amos). Although conceivable, it was indicated that the water would not harm people’s health.
The workers must continue to dump it into reactors to prevent them from overheating, but they also need to deal with the increase f wastewater. Radioactive substances have undeniably done their share in contributing to the evolving problem of water pollution. These substances have also been linked to serious health risks such as genetic mutations, miscarriages, birth defects, and certain cancers. According to the Livingston Foundation, “Exposure to radiation is considered a mutagen, meaning that it causes mutations in DNA. This is why exposure to radiation increases the risk of cancer” (Amos).
Because radioactive substances are harmful to people, it is imperative to find better ways to dispose of them. Recently, multiple barges f freshwater have been shipped to Japan to cool overheated reactors. There are great risks involved in completing this already dangerous task. Representatives sense a rising pressure to use freshwater instead of seawater for their cooling operations since seawater can corrode the reactors. By identifying innovative solutions to water pollution issues, researchers can direct their attention to the accessibility of water and discover ways to make available worldwide.
Water pollution prevention and control measures are vital to refining water quality and decreasing the need for expensive seawater, as well as drinking water treatment Since water pollution originates from various sources (Figure 6), an assortment of water pollution prevention and control measures is necessary. Green infrastructure is one beneficial approach. “Unlike single-purpose gray seawater infrastructure, which uses pipes to dispose of rainwater, green infrastructure uses vegetation and soil to manage rainwater where it falls” (Pollution Control).
Some innovative ideas that are already in the works include recollecting rainfall from small storms in order to reduce seawater discharges, while mall discharges can be converted into sewer run-offs and lower contaminant piles. Water treatment facilities work continuously to provide clean water for everyone to consume. Not only does water pollution hurt communities by inflicting major damages and loss of lives, but it can take years to clean and repair. Due to daily mishaps that permit pollutants into the water, countries with inadequate facilities still struggle with water pollution while refining it.
Researchers from the University of Texas and Iowa have created a strain of E. Coli that can help maintain the crisis. This bacteria is so addicted to caffeine hat it dies when given decaf. Since E. Coli is a disease-causing agent, it can be utilized in water, where caffeine is a common pollutant (Brayer). Its presence in water is a strong indication of recent sewage or animal waste contamination. The discovery offers a host of potential uses such as decontaminating caffeine and polluted water. The strain of E. Coli can be used as a obsessions to monitor levels of caffeine in heavily polluted environments.
Microbiologists hope that E. Coli can get rid of water pollution by consuming it. Because the bacteria is dependent on biotechnology, numerous genetic lolls can be used to work with it. Water is the key to life; therefore, conserving it is one of the most essential plans of action that can be taken to protect the environment. ‘The U. S. Geological Survey estimates that the average human can survive only a week without water” (Safe Drinking Water Is Essential: Human and Animal Waste). Waters multidimensional purpose does not simply stop at the notating water; some of its other uses include gardening, plumbing, and bathing.