Expanding glaciers and ice cover spreading across Greenland began driving the Norse settlers out. The last, surviving, written records Of the Norse Greenland settlements, which had persisted for centuries, concern a marriage in 1408 A. D. In the church of Heavily, today the best preserved Norse ruin. Colder winters began regularly freezing rivers and canals in Great Britain, the Netherlands and Northern France, with both the Thames in London and the Seine in Paris frozen solid annually. The first River Thames Frost Fair was held in 1607.
In 1607-1608, early European settlers in North America reported ice resisting on Lake Superior until June. In January, 1658, a Swedish army marched across the ice to invade Copenhagen. By the end of the 1 7th century, famines had spread from northern France, across Norway and Sweden, to Finland and Estonia. Reflecting its global scope, evidence of the Little Ice Age appears in the Southern Hemisphere as well. Sediment cores from Lake Malawi in southern Africa show colder weather from 1570 to 1820.
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A 3,000 year temperature reconstruction based on varying rates of stalagmite growth in a cave in South Africa also indicates a colder period from 1 500 to 1800. A 1 997 study comparing West Antarctic ice cores with the results of the Greenland Ice Sheet Project Two (GOSSIP) indicate a global Little Ice Age affecting the two ice sheets in tandem. The Sipped Dome, an ice dome roughly 100 km long and 100 km wide, about 100 km east of the Sipped Coast of Antarctica, also reflects effects of the Little Ice Age synchronously with the GOSSIP record, as do sediment cores from the Brownfield Basin of the Antarctic Peninsula.
Oxygen/isotope analysis from the Pacific Islands indicates a 1. 5 degree Celsius temperature decline between 270 and 1475 A. D. The Franz Josef glacier on the west side of the Southern Alps of New Zealand advanced sharply during the period Of the Little Ice Age, actually invading a rain forest at its maximum extent in the early asses. The Mueller glacier on the east side of New Sealant’s Southern Alps expanded to its maximum extent at roughly the same time. Ice cores from the Andean mountains in South America show a colder period from 1600 to 1800.
Tree ring data from Patagonia in South America show cold periods from 1270 to 1380 and from 1520 to 1670. Spanish explorers noted he expansion of the San Rafael Glacier in Chile from 1675 to 1766, which continued into the 1 9th century. The height of the Little Ice Age is generally dated as 1 650 to 1 850 A. D. The American Revolutionary Army under General George Wash ingot shivered at Valley Forge in the winter of 1777-78, and New York harbor was frozen in the winter of 1780. Historic snowstorms struck Lisbon, Portugal in 1665, 1744 and 1886.
Glaciers in Glacier National Park in Montana advanced until the late 18th or early 1 9th centuries. The last River Thames Frost Fair was held in 1814. The Little Ice Age phased out during the middle to late 19th century. The Little Ice Age, following the historically warm temperatures Of the Medieval Warm Period, which lasted from about AD 950 to 1250, has been attributed to natural cycles in solar activity, particularly sunspots. A period of sharply lower sunspot activity known as the Wolf Minimum began in 1 280 and persisted for 70 years until 1350.
That was followed by a period of even lower sunspot activity that lasted 90 years from 1460 to 1550 known as the Spores Minimum. During the period 1645 to 171 5, the low point of the Little Ice Age, he number of sunspots declined to zero for the entire time. This is known as the Maunder Minimum, named after English astronomer Walter Maunder. That was followed by the Dalton Minimum from 1 790 to 1830, another period of well below normal sunspot activity. The increase in global temperatures since the late 19th century just reflects the end of the Little Ice Age.
The global temperature trends since then have followed not rising CA trends but the ocean temperature cycles of the Pacific Decal Oscillation (POD) and the Atlantic Multilateral Oscillation (AMMO). Every 20 to 30 years, the much colder water near the bottom of the oceans cycles up to the top, where it has a slight cooling effect on global temperatures until the sun warms that water. That warmed water then contributes to slightly warmer global temperatures, until the next chi running cycle.
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The 20 to 30 year ocean temperature cycles turned b late asses until the late asses, which is the primary r. Temperatures warmed during this period. But that ago, and global temperatures have stopped increaser actually cooled, even though global CA emissions hi period. As The Economist magazine reported in Marc roughly 1 00 billion tones of carbon to the atmosphere 010. That is about a quarter of all the CA put there 1750. ” Yet, still no warming during that time. That is greenhouse effect is weak and marginal compared etc temperature changes.
At first the current stall Out Of global warming was du turning back to cold. But something much more emir this period. Sunspots run in 11 year short term cycles trends of 90 and even 200 years. The number of suns substantially in the last 11 year cycle, after flattening years. But in the current cycle, sunspot activity has c News report for January 8, 201 3 states, “Indeed, the sun could be on the threshold of a mini-I owe. Ongoing Solar Cycle 24 [the current short term weakest in more than 50 years.