The Romans also performed plastic cosmetic surgery. The Romans were able to perform simple cuisines, such as repairing damaged ears from around the 1 SST century BC. For religious reasons, they did not dissect either human beings or animals, thus their knowledge was based in its entirety on the texts of their Greek predecessors. Notwithstanding, Lulus Cornelius Celsius left some surprisingly accurate anatomical descriptions, some of which ?? for instance, his studies on the genitalia and the skeleton ?? are of special interest to plastic surgery. 1 5] In 1465, Succubus’s book, description, and classification of hypoxia’s was more informative and up to date. Localization of urethral meat’s[disambiguation needed] was described in detail. Subconscious also detailed the description and classification of ambiguous genitalia.  In mid-1 5th-century Europe, Heimlich von Polluted described a process “to make a new nose for one who lacks it entirely, and the dogs have devoured it” by removing skin from the back of the arm and suturing it in place.
However, because of the dangers associated with surgery in any form, especially that involving the head or face, it was not until the 1 9th and 20th centuries that such surgery became common. Up until the techniques of anesthesia became established, surgeries involving healthy tissues involved great pain. Infection from surgery was reduced by the introduction of sterile techniques and disinfectants. The invention and use of antibiotics, beginning with sulfonamide and penicillin, was another step in making elective surgery possible.
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In 1 793, Fran??ois Chopper performed operative procedure on a lip using a flap from the neck. In 1814, Joseph Carper successfully performed operative procedure on a British military officer who had lost his nose to the toxic effects Of mercury treatments. In 1818, German surgeon Carl Ferdinand von Garage published his major work entitled Ornithologist. Von Garage modified the Italian method using a free skin graft from the arm instead of the original delayed pedicel flap.
The first American plastic surgeon was John Peter Mature, who, in 1827, performed the first cleft palate operation with instruments that he designed himself. In 1 845, Johann Frederica Differences wrote a comprehensive text on rhinestones, entitled Operative Chirurgic, and introduced the concept of reparation to improve the cosmetic appearance of the reconstructed nose. In 1891, American otorhinolaryngologistJohn Roe presented an example of is work, a young woman on whom he reduced a dorsal nasal hump for cosmetic indications.
In 1 892, Robert Weir experimented unsuccessfully with exonerates (duck sternum) in the reconstruction of sunken noses. In 1896, James Israel, a urological surgeon from Germany, and in 1 889 George Monks of the United States each described the successful use of heterogeneous free- bone grafting to reconstruct saddle nose defects. In 1 898, Jacques Joseph, the German orthopedic-trained surgeon, published his first account of reduction rhinestones.