Tinnitus, agitation, restlessness, seizure activity, decreased cardiac excitation, fatigue dizziness General adverse effects: Confusion, delirium lethargy, muscle weakness, increase cerebral blood flow leads to increased interracial pressure, decreased gloomier filter rate, decreased hepatic blood flow, uterine muscle contraction Be familiar with the different stages of anesthesia Stage 1. Analgesia-: loss of Socratic sensation, still conscious and somewhat aware of surroundings Stage 2- excitement (delirium)- unconscious but appears agitated and restless, irregular respirations, stage ends with re-establishment of jugular breathing Stage 3-surgical anesthesia- desirable for surgical procedures, onset of regular and deep respirations, complete cessation of spontaneous respirations Stage 4- excessive anesthesia, leads to inhibition of respire. Control center, ability to regulate BP is affected resulting in C.V. collapse; depression of the rest. Center in the brain stem, rest. And C.V. is required or pat. Will die.
Anti-??lampoonery Drugs Inflammation-response to foreign organisms or antigenic substance Chronic or Acute Phagocytes and naturalization of invading organism is beneficial but it can go o far such as in Rheumatoid arthritis Understand the role of callousness’s (COX) and prostaglandin in the inflammatory process. Be familiar With the difference between COX–I and COX2 Arachnoids acid-(derived from phosphoric)main target Of drug therapy, released as part Of the inflammatory process, precursor to: Prostaglandin- Cox- COX-1:constitutive homeostasis function in GIG tract, kidney and platelets Thromboses. Undue platelet aggregation (clot formation) Prostaglandin-inhibit platelet aggregation, protect gastric mucosa and induce vacillation, help promote proper renal blood flow in kidneys COX. : induced during inflammation, facilitates further inflammation, (tissue damage) Prostaglandin-inhibit platelet aggregation (formation) causes pain, fever and vacillation Autoimmune disorders lead to inflammation through T and B lymphocyte activation and proliferation.
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List the major adverse effects to UNSAID drugs and be able to counsel patients who are taking them UNSAID work at the callousness’s level (non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) Analgesic-pain reducing Antipathetic-anti fever antiparticle effects-thin blood rapid onset (days for AAA effect) major adverse effects- GIG abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, ulcers and bleeding renal failure, renal insufficiency CNN: headaches, tinnitus, dizziness, C.V. fluid retention, hypertension and bleeding Abnormal liver functions tests and rare liver failure asthma Be familiar with drugs that are more COX2 selective and the benefit that can be for patients.
Also be aware of the risks of these drugs. Rheumatoid isocratic arthritis, BIBS, gout, osteoarthritis, sprains strains, colon cancer prevention, efficacy similar for all Nasally Celebrate (collection) Teetotal Melodic (#1) Embankment Dislocated Know the brand names of common Nasals like Ibuprofen-motoring Unproven-alive Melodic-mob ICC Meditation- (common agent for gout) (brand name) collection- celebrate Differentiate steroidal anti-??inflammatory drugs from Nasals.
List examples of commonly used steroids and their major adverse effects (especially if used for long term) What is mountebanks? What makes it different from the Nasals and steroids- Helps prevent and control asthma attacks, different is that is needs a steroid to be dose along with it to be effective Cite key differences between acetaminophen and the UNSAID. What are important counseling points for its safe use? UNSAID reduce inflammation and acute. Does not, acute is milder on the digestive tract What does the acronym DAMMAR stand for?
Give examples of drugs in this class. List brand and generic names of three common biologic Dammar and their clinical indications. DAMMAR-disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs Major dragon METAMORPHOSE Inhibits proliferation and stimulate potatoes of immune inflammatory cells, (lymphocytes, macrophages, cytokines) Inhibits polysaccharide chemo taxis Weekly dose, stronger dose used for cancer SULFANILAMIDE (exultation)-RA, BIBS, sulfa drug, be careful because of sulfa allergies LEOPOLDVILLE (RAVE)- RAVE psoriasis HYDROCHLORIDE’S (palanquin)- RA. Lair, lupus erythrocyte’s, Ocular toxicity check eyes on regular basis of on drug Adverse effects Diarrhea Liver toxicity Aliped Leukemia Thermodynamic Iatrogenic Biological DAMMAR- tenor necrosis factor inhibitor Adverse effects Injection site reactions Lupus like syndrome Heart failure exacerbation Increase risk of infection Increased risk of malignancy Denomination Gout drugs-hyperglycemia, high levels of uric acid, crystallizes in joints.
Gout Drugs Chocoholic-terminate acute gout attach, prevent recurrent attacks Much, Of action- inhibits leukocyte migration and phagocytes Diarrhea, nausea, wanting ABA, pain IV dosing not recommended Resource agents Pronounced Qualifications Much.
Of action-inhibit reapportion or uric acid in proximal tubule Allophonic Adverse-flare of gout, nausea, vomiting, headache, skin rash Buxomest Lased for those who don’t tolerate allophonic Sedative Hypnotics: induce a calming effect, reduce/Allis anxiety and cause drowsiness, calming effect CNN depressant Depressant activity is graded and dose dependent Most exert their pram. Effect via action of gamma-amino butyric acid (GAB) acceptors in the CNN. inhibits in the CNN Ethanol or barb. Linear effect leads quicker to death Bonzes. More used for sedation, bonzes generally wont kill… UT can Drugs that effect GAB Ethyl alcohol Euphoria loss of inhibition Inhibits the ability of glutamate to open action channels Clinical uses- self treatment of depression, anxiety, essential tremor Collaborate and Collateralized- used for alcohol withdrawal (GAB-Eric effects) Know brand and generic names of these common painlessness’s: enhance GAB-Eric activity, nationality and hypnotic undergo hepatic metabolism Short acting: Alabama (Canal), trample Intermediate acting: chlorate, Lorena, (Divan) Long acting : digamma( value), flare-up Alabama-Brand name Canal digamma, -value Lorena, -Divan colonnaded-sloping triathlon- halcyon Landholders the difference between true painlessness’s and non-BIZ sedative. Hypnotics (collided, gallon, septillion) and know their brand names, too True painlessness’s- used for treating anxiety, sleep and muscle spasms Non- painlessness’s sedative hypnotics- used mainly on sleep, sleep eating, walking and driving Collided-ambient Galleon-sonata Septillion-lunette
Know the clinical uses of bonzes and barbiturates Bonzes- sedation, induce sleep, amnesia effects, epilepsy and seizures, muscle relaxation, cardiac and respiratory effects, muscle relaxation, Barbiturates- no longer commonly used, and less safe, anesthetic, seizures Understand what makes business and rearmament different from other sedative hypnotics: Rearmament:Agonies at the melatonin receptor, no direct effect on gab, helps you fall asleep faster, main use in jet lag Business- reduces anxiety without sedation or euphoria, acts via serotonin dopamine receptors, prolonged anxiety disorder Non GAB Drugs Antihistamines-boundary, hydroxide Antidepressants-tricycle antidepressant, trapezoid, Approach, zloty antispasmodics -equestrian Understand the mechanism of action of neuromuscular blockers. Depopulating – paradoxically, to much Depopulating agonies also Stops the propagation Of the action potential persistent deportation make the muscle fiver resistant to ACH ex. Economically non-??Depopulating-antagonism of acetylene’s activity by blocking Ach binding to nicotine receptors prevents deportation and propagation of the action potential ex. Pandemonium, vociferous, ruction Clinical uses-surgical, tracheal intubations, control of ventilation, treatment of convulsions Be familiar with skeletal muscle relaxants like Bachelor-acts GAB-b receptors Syllabification-(Filler)- most common SMS, related to tricycle antidepressants, strong ant-schoolchildren, drowsiness, blurry vision dry mouth Carpooled-muscle spasm, most abused, related to mathematic, barbiturate relation (Soma) Methodological-(robin) dedication -agonies at central alpha-2 receptors Differentiate Depopulating from non-??Depopulating muscle relaxants. How do they work and give at least one example of each.
Pain Management: Understand the different levels of inception and where different drugs affect the process Of pain signaling Inception-process by Which information about tissue damage is conveyed to the CNN Four Process Transduction-activation of a inceptor from a noxious external stimulus release of chemical including prostaglandin, the process of converting a stimulus into a pain impulse (UNSAID, local anesthetics) Transmission-encounters travel to the spinal cord, impulses are transmitted to the brain (voids, GAB analogs bachelor cabinet) Perception-impulses from the spinal cord to the brain and timeless the thalamus, Contractual compensatory cortex, limbic system, info interpreted in terms to location, insanity, and quality, uncomfortable awareness is perceived (general anesthetics) Modulation-attenuation of the pain sensation by descending inhibitory input trot the brain, (endorphins, morphogenesis, GAB), accounts for differences in perception of pain or thresholds towards pain (voids, Girl’s Tact’s, cabinet) What is toreador? What makes it different from other analgesics?