In addition to innocent organisms dying off, our drinking water has become greatly affected as is our ability to use water for recreational purposes. In order to combat water pollution, we must understand the problems and become part of the solution. Keywords: water pollution, sustainability, earth, oxygen All around the world there are issues with our water resources, from conservation and preservation to pollution and depletion. We need to increase public awareness within our local governments, citizens of our country, and the world on how important clean and fresh water are to every vying organism.
With the increase in human population, increase in pollution, the demand for clean water is essential for the existence of mankind. Water pollution is a concern in the world today. The governments of many countries have looked to find solutions to reduce the problem. Many different pollutants threaten the water ways, especially in underdeveloped countries where disposal of raw sewage in natural waters are a common place, the constant new construction that is being done around the world also appears to be a factor which is affecting pollution to our water resources . Puzzle 01 0) Construction developments affect the waters by the chemicals they use and the regard for proper disposal of toxic chemicals that run-off in the soils and then into the water systems which in turn affects our drinking water. These disease causing contaminants enter our systems in our water, from untreated sewers, septic tanks, boats and storm drains not properly cleaned. Water borne ailments can cause hookworms, intestinal parasites, typhoid fever, diarrhea and numerous other bacterial and viral diseases. SEEPS 2010)Water that is polluted has caused earaches, conjunctivitis, upper expiratory infections skin rashes, hepatitis, gastroenteritis, vomiting, diarrhea, inflammation of the brain and other ailments. These types of water borne disease are more prevalent in third world countries or in severe poverty stricken states. According to the American College Dictionary, pollution is defined as: to make foul or unclean; dirty. Water pollution occurs when a body of water is adversely affected due to the addition of large amounts of materials to the water.
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When it is unfit for its intended use, water is considered polluted. Two types of water pollutants exist; point source and Nippon source. Point sources of pollution occur when harmful substances are emitted directly into a body of water. The Exxon Valued oil spill best illustrates point source water pollution. A Nippon source delivers pollutants indirectly through environmental changes. An example of this type of water pollution is when fertilizer from a field is carried into a stream by rain, in the form of run-off which in turn affects aquatic life.
The technology exists for point sources of pollution to be monitored and regulated, although political factors may complicate matters. Nippon sources are much more difficult to control. Pollution arising from Nippon sources accounts for a majority of the contaminants in streams and lakes. Many causes of pollution including sewage and fertilizers contain nutrients such as nitrates and phosphates. In excess levels, nutrients over stimulate the growth of aquatic plants and algae. SEEPS 2010)Excessive growth of these types of organisms consequently clogs our waterways, use up dissolved oxygen as they decompose, and block light to deeper waters. This, in turn, proves very harmful to aquatic organisms as it affects the respiration ability or fish and other invertebrates that reside in water. Pollution is also caused when silt and other suspended solids, such as soil, wash off plowed fields, construction and logging sites, urban areas, and eroded river banks when it rains.
Under natural conditions, lakes, rivers, and other water bodies undergo Transportation, an aging process that slowly fills in the water body with sediment and organic matter. When these sediments enter various bodies of water, fish respiration becomes impaired, plant productivity and water depth become reduced, and aquatic organisms and their environments become suffocated. Pollution in the form of organic material enters waterways in any different forms as sewage, as leaves and grass clippings, or as runoff from livestock feedlots and pastures.
When natural bacteria and protozoan in the water break down this organic material, they begin to use up the oxygen dissolved in the water. Many types of fish and bottom-dwelling animals cannot survive when levels of dissolved oxygen drop below two to five parts per million. When this occurs, it kills aquatic organisms in large numbers which leads to disruptions in the food chain. Several forms Of legislation have been passed in recent decades to try to control water pollution. In 1 970, the Clean Water Act provided 50 billion dollars to cities and states to build wastewater facilities.
This has helped control surface water pollution from industrial and municipal sources throughout the United States. When congress passed the Clean Water Act in 1 972, states were given primary authority to set their own standards for their water. In addition to these standards, the act required that all state beneficial uses and their criteria must comply with the feasible and assumable goals of the act. This essentially means that state beneficial uses must be able to support aquatic life and recreational use.
Because it is impossible to test water for every type of disease-causing organism, states usually look to identify indicator bacteria. (Puzzle, 2010)One for an example is a bacterium known as fecal coli forms. These indicator bacteria suggest that a certain selection of water may be contaminated with untreated sewage and that other, more dangerous, organisms are present. These legislations are an important part in the fight against water pollution. They are useful in preventing environmental catastrophes. The graph shows reported pollution incidents since 1989-1994.
If Stronger legislations existed, perhaps these events would never eave occurred. Water quality is closely linked to water use and to the state of economic development. In industrialized countries, bacterial contamination of surface water caused serious health problems in major cities throughout the mid sass. (ADLER T. 2007) BY the turn of the century, Cities in Europe and North America began building sewer networks to route domestic wastes downstream of water intakes. Development of these sewage networks and waste treatment facilities in urban areas has expanded tremendously in the past two decades.
However, the rapid growth of the urban population especially in Latin America and Asia) has outpaced the ability of governments to expand sewage and water infrastructure. While waterborne diseases have been eliminated in the developed world, outbreaks of cholera and other similar diseases still occur with alarming frequency in the developing countries. Since World War II and the birth of the chemical age, water quality has been heavily impacted worldwide by industrial and agricultural chemicals.
Transportation of surface waters from human and agricultural wastes and nitrification of groundwater from agricultural practices has greatly affected rage parts of the world. Acidification of surface waters by air pollution is a recent phenomenon and threatens aquatic life in many area of the world. In developed countries, these general types of pollution have occurred sequentially with the result that most developed countries have successfully dealt with major surface water pollution. In contrast, however, newly industrialized countries such as China, India, Thailand, Brazil, and Mexico are now facing all these issues simultaneously.
Action Items (in the correct order) I Action Steps Timeline I Research and identify the effects of water pollution. I Review environmental Web sites and journals. Document the sources of water pollution and both environmental and health effects of water pollution. Document video interviews of environmental researchers and facilitators. I Month 1-31 Develop an education program about water pollution effects. Develop a presentation about why this program is needed and include examples such as: never pouring toxic substances down the drain. Although water is cleaned, cities do not have the equipment to eliminate all toxic substances from the water supply. I Month 1-31 Contact Government. I Tell your local officials that you ant information on the community’s water supply and local polluters. Make sure officials recognize your right to know about your water supply. I Month 4 Find Water’s Source. Review environmental Web sites and journals. L_earn about where your community’s water comes from. Keep a close eye on this water source and encourage others to do the same.
I Month 1-3 Read Well Reports. Community well operators often produce monitoring reports on the safety of local wells. Ask the operators to give you a copy of these materials and stay up-to-date on your wells. I Month 4 Schedule a presentation day and time to educate the public. I *You can make your own non-toxic versions of many popular products, such as insect repellents. Doing so prevents the toxic chemicals found in these products from entering the environment and the water supply. *If you can avoid purchasing products containing toxic chemicals, do so.
Otherwise, there is a threat that these chemicals could enter the environment and the water supply. I Month 5 Identify and invite community participants. I Tally the number of homes in the community. Create and distribute flyers to homes announcing the next meeting and the educational program that will be introduced. I Month 5 Test Your Water. I Especially if your water comes from a private well, you should perform periodic tests for bacteria, metals, and toxic chemicals. (Help of labs, etc. ) I Ongoing Making people aware of the problem is the first step to solving it.
In the early sass, when surfers in Britain grew tired of catching illnesses from water polluted with sewage, they formed a group called Surfers Against Sewage to force governments and water companies to clean up their act. People who’ve grown tired of walking the world’s polluted beaches often band together to organize community beach-cleaning sessions. Anglers who no longer catch so any fish have campaigned for tougher penalties against factories that pour pollution into our rivers. Greater public awareness can make a positive difference.
Most environmental experts agree that the best way to tackle pollution is through something called the polluter pays principle. This means that whoever causes pollution should have to pay to clean it up, one way or another. (ADLER T. 2007) Polluter pays can operate in all kinds of ways. It could mean that tanker owners should have to take out insurance that covers the cost of oil spill cleanups, for example. It could also mean that shoppers would have to pay for their plastic grocery bags, as is now common in Ireland, to encourage recycling and minimize waste.
Or it could mean that factories that use rivers must have their water inlet pipes downstream of their effluent outflow pipes, so if they cause pollution they themselves are the first people to suffer. Ultimately, the polluter pays principle is designed to deter people from polluting by making it less expensive for them to behave in an environmentally responsible way. Life is ultimately about choices-??and so is pollution. We can live with sewage-strewn beaches, dead rivers, and fish hat are too poisonous to eat.
Or we can work together to keep the environment clean so the plants, animals, and people who depend on it remain healthy. We can take individual action to help reduce water pollution, for example, by using environmentally friendly detergents, not pouring oil down drains, reducing pesticides, and so on. We can take community action too, by helping out on beach cleans or litter picks to keep our rivers and seas that little bit cleaner. And we can take action as countries and continents to pass laws that will make pollution harder and the world less polluted.