Data collection method and rigor, as well as methods for data analysis will be discussed. Main findings, interpretation of the results, limitations and strengths and relevance to nursing practice will also be examined in this paper. The purpose of this paper is to explain how the above stated study was conducted and give specific details that pertain to the study in a critiquing manner. Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine the experiences Of male nursing students who were completing the collaborative baccalaureate degree program in Canada.
The research question developed by the researchers was Tell me what is your experience of being a male student in a baccalaureate nursing program? (Amadeus & Toomey, 201 1). The central concepts of this study were to explore barriers involving sexual stereotypes, such as all men who are nurses are gay and their masculinity is doubted, as well as gender biases in nursing texts, language, images, in school and in the hospital setting (Amadeus & Toomey, 201 1). Research Method The research approach for this study was qualitative.
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Qualitative research has a goal of attaining an in-depth understanding of life in a natural setting without using any manipulation. The goal of qualitative research is to gain people’s experiences and perceptions to build a general portrait of the main problem. This research uses an inductive approach, which is formulating a specific question to gain broad data. Qualitative research is often used when there is little information about the problem being explored, or has unanswered questions (Davies & Logan, 2012).
The research design for this study was the descriptive phenomenological method (Amadeus & Toomey, 201 1). This type of method is used to get lived experiences from the people who are describing it. It is the person’s perception of the lived experience that matters (Davies & Logan, 2012). The described phenomenological method was appropriate for the research question because they wanted to get information on the experiences of male students in the nursing education program. This gave them lived experiences of each male student. Sample.
The procedure for selecting the sample was purposive sampling to recruit students through e-mail and posters from three different nursing programs within the Atlantic Canada provinces. The sample size contained twenty-seven male students (Amadeus & Toomey, 201 1). The sample size and selection was appropriate because qualitative research uses smaller sample sizes and purposely selects participants to gain the best information on the selected issue. The smaller sample size is used because there is no need for statistical breakdown of numbers (Davies & Logan, 2012).
The participants were in different years of a four year nursing program, and a number of them were in the two year fast-tracking program. They ranged in age from twenty to thirty-eight years old, and twelve of the students had family members who were nurses (Amadeus & Toomey, 201 1 There were no defined inclusions or exclusions, but the study was only available to male students who were active in the nursing program. There was no selection bias observed in the study. The study was open to any male students in the nursing program. Ethical considerations.
Informed consent was obtained and signed prior to the study beginning. To alleviate concern of bias, the investigators, whom were also faculty at one site, disclosed that they would be part of the study to relieve the students of any perceived conflict of interest. To assure confidentiality, the data was stored in a filling cabinet that was locked in a riveter office room. Computer files were password protected to ensure confidentiality as well (Amadeus & Toomey, 2011 Data collection. Data was collected using five focus groups and completing a short demographic form. The technique of using group interviews is recommended as the ‘sole basis’ for data collection when undertaking a phenomenological stud)/’ (Amadeus & Toomey, 201 1). By using the group setting, the researchers were able to make the male students feel comfortable and confident. It gave opportunity for them to share their thoughts without any fear (Amadeus & Toomey, 2011). This technique is appropriate because it is best suited to acquire human life experiences (Davies & Logan, 2012). The roles of the researchers were defined as being mediator, observer and recorder.
The roles did switch between groups but had consistent roles at all times (Amadeus & Toomey, 2011 Data saturation is not described in this article. Data analysis. The method used for data analysis was the Corgi’s phenomenological method. This method uses four steps, the first being reading the whole phenomenon as described by the participants. Second, is reading the transcripts again and breaking the whole information down into mono groups. The third step is converting the information from the participants into a general concept.
Lastly, the information is combined into a final overall description of their experiences (Amadeus & Toomey, 201 1). This method is appropriate for analysis because qualitative research aims to Start inductive and work to broader categories. This type of research achieves this goal. Trustworthiness is shown by the credibility of the male students who had lived the experiences described. They are the experts therefore giving it extra credibility. All interviews were tape-recorded and typed verbatim and heck by both researchers to ensure trustworthiness. Dependability was achieved by having peer-reviewed checks of the information collected.
Configurability was illustrated by the nurse interviewers sharing with the students that they would be interviewing them relieving any bias. Direct quotes were used in the article and reviewed by the nurse researchers, which shows the transferability (Amadeus & Toomey, 2011). Results. The main results of the study include choosing nursing, becoming a nurse, caring within the nursing role, gender-based stereotypes, and visible/ invisible (Amadeus & Toomey, 201 1). The results for choosing nursing were job security, demand for nurses, and career opportunities.
Support from family and friends, classmates and faculty kept the male students on track of becoming a nurse despite them being a visible minority within the program. Caring within the role of a nurse posed as a problem to the men because they thought that in caring for people their masculinity would be judged by patients and coworkers. The male students stated that nursing is viewed as a feminine profession and that these perceptions delegate how patients see the male nurses. Many of them stated that they were mistaken for doctors because they were men.
Many of the male students felt that because they were the minority in the program that they were picked out of the group more often by faculty and in the clinical setting. They either felt as though they were purposely being sought after or not being acknowledged at all (Amadeus & Toomey, 201 1). The findings do relate to the original research question. The question asked about the experiences of the male students had while completing the nursing program and the findings were what they had experienced as being male nursing students. Discussion. The information gathered under the theme of choosing nursing backs up past research.
It mirrors previous information on the same topic from past research. In the process of becoming a nurse, many of the men stated that they had researched several different ways to gain information about nursing such as the internet, family members and education sessions (Amadeus & Toomey, 201 1). The publics assumption of nursing being a majority female profession are supported by the information gained in the themes of gender-based stereotypes, visible/invisible, and caring within the urging role. The theme visible/invisible also supports the gender concerns that the male students reported in regards to their nursing program.
It caused the male students to become over achievers, putting pressure on their performance (Amadeus & Toomey, 201 1). One of the limitations of the study was that it was restricted to male student in Newfoundland and Labrador only. Another limitation of the study included one Of the focus groups. The researchers, whom were also faculty from one of the programs that the male students attended, lead the focus group. This may have caused he students to withhold information because of the teacher student relationship (Amadeus & Toomey, 2011 Application and utilization for practice.
This article is applicable to health care practice in the way that it describes how male students felt in connection to the nursing education and clinical setting. It describes both positive and negative feelings as well as ways that the information can help improve how male students are perceived. The information collected gave ways on how education can improve to help male students. It is suggested that faculty should be more aware of their biases and be sensitive to the sexism in the lassoer and clinical setting (Amadeus & Toomey, 201 1).