Human activities are the main factor and their misuse of land resources. Arbitration and industrialization are major causes of land pollution. Indiscriminate disposal of domestic (solid and liquid) and industrial wastes, exploitation of minerals, and improper use of soil by inadequate agricultural practices are a few factors. Taking Abidjan as a case study, we are going to discuss the causes of land pollution in Abidjan, the effects, the remedial measures and how effective they are. Abidjan was historically an Gab town.
The Gab occupants were forced to leave the town and moved to present-day Absolute under the leadership of Stocked when the surge of Oho refugees flocked into the towns as an aftermath of the fall of Oho Kingdom. Abidjan grew into an impressive and sprawling urban center so much that by the end of 1 829, Abidjan dominated the Your;b; region militarily, politically and economically. The military sanctuary expanded even further when refugees began arriving in large numbers from northern Oho following raids by Flank warriors.
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After losing the northern portion of their region to the marauding Fulfils, many Oho indigene retreated deeper into the Abidjan environs. The Flank Caliphate attempted to expand further into the southern region of modern-day Nigeria, UT was decisively defeated by the armies of Abidjan in 1840. The Abidjan area became a British Protectorate in 1 893 and by then the population had swelled to 120,000. The British developed the new colony to facilitate their commercial activities in the area, and Abidjan shortly grew into the major trading center that it is today.
At independence, Abidjan was the largest and the most populous city in Nigeria and the third in Africa after Cairo and Johannesburg. It is located in south-western, 128 km inland northeast of Lagos and 345 km southwest of , the federal capital and is a prominent point between the region and the areas to the north. The population of Abidjan was 2,550,593 according to 2006 census results, including 1 1 local government areas. The principal inhabitants of the city are the Yours.
Waste also includes garbage, construction debris, commercial refuse, sludge from water, control facilities and other discarded materials. Most of the solid wastes, like paper, plastic containers, bottles, cans, and even used cars and electronic goods are not bio-degradable, which means they do not get broken down through inorganic or organic processes. Thus, when they accumulate they pose a health threat to people. Decaying wastes also attract household pests and result in urban areas becoming unhealthy, dirty, and unsightly places to reside in.
Moreover, it also causes damage to terrestrial organisms, while also reducing the uses of the land for other, more useful purposes. Some of the sources of solid, liquid and gaseous waste that cause land pollution are: *Wastes from Agriculture: This comprises of waste matter produced by crop, animal manure, and farm residues. *Wastes from Mining: Piles of coal refuse and heaps of slam. *Wastes from Industries: Industrial waste matter that can cause land pollution can include paints, chemicals, and so on. Solids from Sewage Treatment: Wastes that re left over after sewage has been treated, biomass sludge, and settled solids. *Ashes: The residual matter that remains after solid fuels are burned. *Garbage: This comprises of waste matter from food that are decomposable and other waste matter that are not decomposable such as glass, metal, cloth, plastic, wood, paper, and so on. WASTE GENERATION IN ABIDJAN Solid waste Although it is generally agreed that enormous quantities of solid waste are generated in Abidjan daily, the exact figures have not been determined, probably owing to the use of diverse methods of calculation.
Mackerel International Ltd (1970) found that the average per capita quantity of solid waste generated was 0. 37-0. 5 keg/day for the traditional areas of the city and 0. 53 keg/day for the newer areas. According to Juniors (1986), 38 million keg of solid waste was collected in the suburbs of Abidjan in 1986. The suburbs constitute about 21% of the city. On this basis, it can be estimated that 181 million keg of solid waste was generated in the city as a whole in 1986. This gives a per capita waste-generation rate of 0. 31 keg/day, using the 1986 estimated population of 1. Million for the city. In 1982, PA Associates corded the volume and weight of solid Waste generated per household per day in Abidjan. The study revealed that waste generation varied according to land use, with residential land use taking the bulk of the share. The generation rates were 3. 4 keg/household per day in the traditional areas, 3. 2 keg/household per day in the newer areas, and 3. 3 keg/household per day in the whole city (altogether giving a per capita generation rate of 0. 33 keg/day). Several researchers have studied the volume of refuse generated in the city.
For example, Mackerel International Ltd (1970) estimated this volume at 182 00 t. The latest study, conducted by Hastening and Seasoned Associates (1994), estimated the per capita rate at 0. 6 keg/day, with a density of 300 keg/ mm. The projections are based on an annual growth rate of population per year The solid-waste composition in Abidjan comprises leaves, paper, food waste, tins, glass, and rags (Mackerel International Ltd 1970). This is because Abidjan is located in the heart of a rich agricultural land and has a large old and unplanned section.