This in turn is causing noise pollution, which is unwanted harmful noise, as from automobiles, airplanes, and industrial work places, which are nearby to the deforested area. With that being said what is the effect of, Human Noise Pollution on Whitetail Deer Populations. Human noise Pollution on Whitetail Deer Populations is an important topic to discuss because with the extra noise coming off construction sites, roadways, and housing structures that are located neat woodland area, there is an increase in the amount of vehicular accidents related to Whitetail deer due to the stress from the excess noise pollution.
This is what happened in an article found about how many immunities were trying to regulate the deer populations (Swisher & Domenici, 1997). The research hypothesis for this experiment is that if there is a substantial amount of human population noise in a given area, then the number of Whitetail deer in that area will be lower. By contrast, the null hypothesis for statistical testing will be that noise from human population has no effect in the number of Whitetail deer in the area.
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Throughout this research the assumptions will be that the weather does not affect the way Who detail deer move, that other sounds originating from rarefy neighborhoods do not affect them and that every deer seen in the photographs count as on deer. In this research there will not be any “Clover Traps”, which are traps that are big enough to hold a fully grown mature deer (Miller and Denying, (2010). There will only be a “Wildlife Infrared Extreme” trail camera, which is used to capture images of wildlife, in this case it is the Whitetail deer population.
This experiment will not use bait to lure the Whitetail deer towards the camera (Hecklers and Foster, 2009). The study of Human noise Pollution on Whitetail Deer Populations is a study that has never been conducted before. However whitetail deer have been studied with multiple experiments. To begin noise pollution is a harmful of unwanted noise that affects ecosystems and habitats. The source of noise pollution usually comes from roads, apartment buildings, houses, shopping malls, and many other heavily populated areas that were once home to wildlife. But what happened to that wildlife? Did they move away or just get used to the pollution?
Those questions are the basis of this research which is dealing with human noise pollution and the way it interferes with the wildlife in that ecosystem particularly focusing in on the whitetail deer. Literature Review Noise Pollution is a controllable pollutant to it mainly being cause by vehicles, planes, boats, and anything else that uses a motor. Noise pollution can affect mating success, predator detection and parental response to begging calls (Lackey, Morrison, and Loan, 2011 This particular pollution is measured in decibel’s which controls the noise frequency and pitch of the noise being made.
In this research however decibels will not be used to measure the noise level, the amount of time will control the noise level. Whitetail deer (independent variable) are named for its most distinctive torture, the large whitetail. There are three different types of whitetail deer. There is the buck which is a mature male deer, then there is the doe which is the mature female deer, and then there is the fawn which is a baby whitetail deer which can either be male or female. Whitetail deer also have three coat patterns that change through aging and during the seasons.
The first coat patter is that fawn coat patter that consists of hundreds of spots that fade with aging. Then, there is the winter coat pattern is a darker thicker coat that will keep the deer warm during the winter months. The third coat pattern is a eighth color and is super thin so that the whitetail deer may remain cool during the summer months. In this research the whitetail deer will be tested by the amount of deer that shows up with the different noise variables. The way that the whitetail deer will be tested will be by a Wildlife Infrared Extreme trail camera, which is a camera that is specifically designed to take pictures of wildlife.
In this case it would be the whitetail deer. They then will be counted manually and recorded in the researchers data. Then this data will be used to calculate the mean number of whitetail deer that came in that rear a day over two week trial periods. In 2010 Heifer, H Jar. And Heifer, H. Stated in there research that whitetail deer have the largest economic impact of any wild animal in North America. Billions of dollars each year are spent on equipment and travel related to deer hunting (e. G. Convey 1997). However deer spread Lame disease causing millions of dollars of damage agriculturally.
Also over a billion dollars to vehicles that collide with them each year (Cover, 1997, Schwas and Schumann, 2002). More than 100 people are killed each year due to deer-vehicular collisions, which makes the most armful part of environmental effects of roads vehicle-related moralities of wildlife (AltaVista, J. , and Dash J. , 2008). Noise pollution also affects workers that work around noise pollution (Toothache, Z, 201 1 the study showed how noise effects workers, and the environment while the building of a dam.
Because of the amount of the noise that the workers and the environment has to take in during the day while the job is being conducted, there for making the workers loose there hearing. This relates to this project because this research tested what the noise did to the environment and the organisms that were within. In 1997 K. Swisher and Identical researched how whitetail deer are becoming major problems in communities today. The stated, “Many communities are trying to regulate the deer populations that are closed from hunting.
As long as adequate food sources are available deer populations will double every two to three years. ” Which is mainly due to the over population of the wildlife in that area because of the deforested area that was used to construct the communities. And what those members of the communities don’t realize is that they are the cause for the abundance of whitetail deer in their area because were there house is those animals used o live. Another study conducted by S. Webb and K. Gee in 2009 was based on the survival and fidelity of the whitetail deer.
They examined marked deer recaptures and sightings over a thirteen year period on an enclosed population of whitetail deer in Oklahoma, LISA. The researchers tested the survival and fidelity parameter. They found that the number of animals that are enclosed by fences have increased which created issues with the breeding habits and individual populations. The researchers also found that male deer had a 58% survival rate during hunting season compared to the 78% of the females during the hunting season. A study conducted by F. Wickedly and J.
Foster in 2009, researchers used a Powder’s estimator to find the number of whitetail deer in a two hundred and fourteen hectare area in Texas. The researchers also used a corn supplement to attract the whitetail deer to their testing area. However in this research there will be no corn supplement used in conducting this research, the sample will be completely natural. B. Miller and R. Denying in 201 0 conducted research on the whitetail deer on the amount of whitetail deer in a given area. Clover Traps were used which are baited traps with kernel corn that the deer eat.
These researchers collected data from whitetail deer from Feb.. 27th 1999 to the 19th of March 2005. These deer where physically restrained, blindfolded, and given an intramuscular injection of Calamine hydrochloride (1 00 MGM/ml) which is a tranquilizer shot, at a dosage of 2. 2 MGM/keg body mass. Then those deer were fixed with plastic ear tags which told there estimated age. Methodology The procedures that the researcher will need to follow if in need of conducting this project are as follows. Obtain a wooded area of which there is a population of whitetail deer that the researcher may conduct the experiment on.
Note that the researcher must have at least a 5 acre perimeter of woodland area around the researcher’s test sight so that the research will not affect other populations. Then, Obtain a Wildlife Infrared Extreme trail camera. This is a water proof outdoor camera that uses a motion detector to take pictures during the day and at night. Obtain an alarm motion detector that is suitable for being outside and being wet. Drive way alarms for cars seem to work very well. (Note: Have not found the alarm product name yet and still needed for project) After the materials have been gathered, in researchers wooded area find a suitable place to place the
Wildlife Infrared Extreme trail camera so that it will have a good view of the area that will be tested. Post it on the suitable tree and make sure that the camera is taking pictures by moving in front of the camera and seeing if a red light comes on when the researcher goes by. Place the remote control motion detector underneath the trail camera so that the camera can take the picture of any whitetail deer in that area when the alarm is going off, and when the motion detector is not in use (Control Variable “No Noise”).
Next depending on what independent variable (Noise) that is being tested set the allotted time or the motion detector to run, before leaving again make sure that the two materials are working by walking in front of the materials. The camera should blink red and the motion detector should sound. After, let the materials sit out in the woods for the 2 week trial periods. Finally, after the 2 week trial period is over go back to the research area and retrieve the Wildlife Infrared Extreme trail camera’s memory card. Then replace the memory card with a new blank memory card by inserting it into the designated slot.
Make sure to leave the camera out there so the researcher would not have to repeat steps and 4. Repeat steps 6, 7, and 8 for the other independent variables. After receiving the memory chip: First, manually count each deer seen in each picture so that the researcher may record you data in their lab notebook. The researcher might also want to record dates, an times so that they find the mean, and mode for each day and time. So that there is data on what day out of the trial period the Whitetail deer moved the most and what the mean and mode was for the time of day also during the 2 week trial lengths.
To better understand the Whitetail deer’s movement patterns due to the noise pollution. Next, plug in the researchers data in Maintain to get the mean, and mode for the movement patterns due to the noise pollution in the Whitetail deer’s environment. Record researchers data in their lab notebook, and then repeat steps 1-3 for each independent variables trial. Data Interpretation The levels and options of my independent variable are a control which will be the environmental noise that is already in the area that I will be testing. This means that will have to be done on this trial period is set up the motion detector and the trail camera.
Another level of this project is the low noise eating which will be a certain time period that the noise will be on so to speak. The next variable will be the medium noise setting which will be a time period that fall be extend from the low setting. The final noise setting will be the high which will be the noise being produce 24 hours at a time for each day. The units and measurement technique for my dependent variable is that the researcher will be manually going through and counting each deer that are seen in all of the pictures.
Then they will see what noise setting the picture was taken during and calculate my data. The researcher will also see hat the mean number of deer there was that came in the testing area for each day and noise level. The descriptive statistics that will be used in this research is mean which is due to the need to find out what the mean number of whitetail deer there were in that particular area at that time and what the mean number of whitetail deer there were in that particular area at that time and what the mean number of deer was that came in that area in that two week trial period every day.
An NOVA test will be used for inferential statistics so that sample data can be compared to the overall population. This ill allow the researcher to see the number of whitetail deer out of that population that is affected by each noise level. The overall outcome (hypothesis) that is thought to happen in this experiment is, if there is a substantial amount of human population noise in a given area, and then the number of Whitetail deer in that area will be lower. This means that when there is an increase in the amount of noise in this experiment then the number of deer visiting that area will decline.
Data Collection Table: Trial # I Control of Deer) I Low (# of Deer) I Deer) I High ( # of Deer) I Trial #1 h weekly h weekly h weekly h weekly Trial #2 h weekly h weekly h weekly h weekly Above is the data collection table that includes three trial periods for each independent variable. With each trial period lasting for two week periods, that are being tested one after another a day apart. Data Analysis Figure 1 shows that the number Of deer in the picture if counted manually was 4, the time was at 8:40 in the morning and it was 9-2-11.
There were a total number of 493 pictures like the one below that had more and less than the one below. Figure 1 shows that the number of deer in the picture if counted manually During this research 493 photographs were used to collect qualitative and initiative data, like the one shown below. The photographs show that there are deer coming into the area, what time they came in, the date, and if it was during the day or at night. The photo below is a photo taken from the control period of this experiment.