Blood has many functions including: moving oxygen/ tourists to the lungs and tissues, forming blood clots to stop bleeding, carrying cells and antibodies that fight Infections, and regulating the temperature of the body. Blood consists of plasma, red and white blood cells, and platelets. Plasma is a mixture of water, sugar, fat, protein, and salts. Plasma transports blood cells, albumin, clotting proteins, antibodies, nutrients, chemical messengers (ex- hormones), and waste products, and other proteins that help regulate balance the body. Plasma Is the fluid part of blood that Is left over after all cells are removed.
Any specific plasma products that have been lost can be replaced with a transfusion. Platelets (otherwise known as “thromboses”) aren’t actually cells but small fragments of them. Platelets are basically the backbone of the coagulation (clotting) process. Platelets stick to the laceration and form a platform on which blood coagulation commences. Platelets make the “first layer” of new tissue (fibrin clot) that will come from the healed blood vessel. Blood thinners such as aspirin taken beforehand may slow the coagulation process and Increase bleeding.
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Red blood cells (also called erythrocytes or Orb’s) are a primary part of blood, making up about 40-45% of it. Orb’s contain an important protein called “hemoglobin” which carries oxygen to various tissues of the body where the oxygen is released to make and store energy necessary for survival. Red blood cells originate from a the “erythrocytes” hormone (hence the name “erythrocytes”) produced by the kidneys. They grow and mature in bone marrow and are later released into the bloodstream, but only survive about 120 days.
Characteristics of red blood cells include bright red color, biconcave shape, and a flattened center. White blood cells (or leukocytes) are the body defense against infection and foreign material; they get rid of dead blood cells. There are specific white blood cells for the different types of defense the body needs. The most common type is the “authorship”, which is the “immediate response” cell. This cell makes up for 55-70% of the white blood cells. The lymphocyte Is the second most common white cell, and It as 2 types: B-cells and T-cells.
These are Important In fighting bacterial and viral Infections as well as In economizing undesirable (cancerous) cells and destroying these before they can multiply. Some of the specific leukocytes surround and ingest microorganisms while others produce pathogen-destroying proteins. Red blood cells also have protein markers that identify one’s blood type. The most common markers are A and B. These markers produce four blood types- A, B, ABA, and O. All people have one of these four. People with A type blood can donate their blood types. B types can donate to ABA and B types. They can receive from B and O types.