Background of the Study Because their wheels clattered on paving stones, chariots in ancient Rome were banned from the streets at night to prevent the noise that disrupted sleep and caused annoyance to the citizens. Centuries later, some cities in Medieval Europe either banned horse drawn carriages and horses from the streets at night or covered the Stone streets with straw to reduce noise and to ensure peaceful sleep for the residents. Berglund & Linda 2:1-195) In more recent times in Philadelphia, the framers of our Constitution covered repay cobblestone streets with earth to prevent noise-induced interruptions in their important work. These examples pinpoint two major effects of noise from which men in all ages have sought relief: interruption of sleep and interference with work that requires concentration. It is interesting that noises emanating from the various types of roadways of today are still among the most important sources of environmental noise, even though the types of noise are not those that existed in Rome, Medieval Europe, or 1 8th century Philadelphia.
Our modern roadways (including road, rail, and air) and the rodents of modern technology produce increasing levels of unwanted noise of varying types and intensities throughout the day and night that disturb sleep, concentration, and other functions. (Lee & Fleming ) This noise affects us without our being consciously aware of it. Unlike our eyes, which we can shut to exclude unwanted visual input, we cannot voluntarily shut our ears to exclude unwanted auditory input. Our hearing mechanisms are always “on” even when we are asleep. Babyish 1 1 3:AAA-15) 3 The noise problems of the past pale in significance when compared with those experienced by modern city dwellers; noise pollution continues to row in extent, frequency, and severity as a result of population growth, arbitration, and technological developments. For example, within the European Common Market, 65% of the population is exposed to unhealthy levels Of transportation noise. (Carols 318:1686-1689) In New York City, maximum noise levels measured 106 db on subway platforms and 1 12 db inside subway cars.
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These levels have the potential of exceeding recommended exposure limits given sufficient duration of exposure. (Greenhorns et al. 83:802-812) In 1991, it was estimated that environmental noise increased by 10% in the decade of the 1 ass’s. Suture ) The 2000 United States Census found that 30% of Americans complained of noise and 1 1% found it to be bothersome. Among those who complained, noise was sufficiently bothersome to make nearly 40% want to change their place of residence. (u . S. Census Bureau, Housing and Economic Statistics Division. That noise pollution continues to grow in scope, variety, and magnitude is unquestioned; it is only the extent of the growth that remains unknown. In comparison to other pollutants, the control of environmental noise has been hampered by insufficient knowledge about its effects on humans ND about dose-response relationships, but this seems to be changing as more research is carried out. However, it is clear that noise pollution is widespread and imposes long-term consequences on health. Committee on Environmental Health, American Academy of Pediatrics) In 1971 , 4 GA World Health Organization (WHO) working group concluded that noise is a major threat to human well-being. That assessment has not changed in the intervening 30-plus years; if anything, the threat has intensified. The various sounds in our environment (excluding all those sounds hat arise in the workplace) to which we are exposed can be viewed as being either necessary (desirable) or unnecessary (undesirable).
One might consider the sounds produced in and around our homes by garbage disposals, dishwashers, clothes washers and dryers, refrigerators, furnaces, air-conditioners, yard maintenance equipment, and the many other mechanized time – and labor – saving devices, which we all use and enjoy, as being necessary. We are exposed to the noise of radio, television, and related technologies; children are exposed to a wide variety of noisy toys. (Season &
Jersey 76:574-578) The noise of internal combustion engines (modulated by legally required mufflers), jet engines (modulated by improved design and by altered flight paths), and train horns at grade crossings (modulated by new Federal Quiet Zone rules), might all be considered necessary. There are numerous other such examples of machines or activities that produce sounds that are tolerated because they accompany a desired activity or they serve an important societal purpose, such as the sirens of emergency vehicles. But what about sounds that accompany an undesired activity, that have no societal importance, or that we consider unnecessary?
What about the sounds produced by the so-called boom-cars that are roving, pulsating noise factories? What about the uncomfortable sound levels at concerts, in theaters, and public sporting events? What 5 about the noise of slow moving train horns in urbanize areas or the early morning sounds accompanying garbage collection? What about all the noise on our streets to which buses, trolley cars, car horns, car alarms, motorcycles, and UN-muffled exhaust systems contribute? What about the risks to children from noisy toys and from personal sound systems? What about the noise of barking dogs, leaf blowers, and recreational vehicles?
What about the noise of low flying aircraft? In general, sounds that we deem unwanted or unnecessary are considered to be noise. Our society is beset by noise, which is intrusive, pervasive, and ubiquitous; most important of all, it is unhealthy. Most reasonable people would agree that much of the environmental noise to which we are subjected serves no useful purpose and is therefore undesirable. The variety of noise polluting devices and activities is large and seems to be growing On a daily basis, although there is no consensus about hat items are useful and desirable or noise polluting and unnecessary.
Domestic tranquility is one of the six guarantees in the United States Constitution, a guarantee that is echoed in some form or other in every state Constitution. In 1 972, the Noise Control Act was passed by Congress, declaring, “… It is the policy of the United States to promote an environment for all Americans free from noise that jeopardizes health and welfare. ” In 1974, the Environmental Protection Agency (ERA) estimated that nearly 100 million Americans lived in areas where the daily average noise levels exceeded those identified as being safe. Environmental Protection Agency) However, in 1982, the government abruptly terminated federal funding for the Office of Noise 6 Abatement and Control, the vehicle by which the public was to be protected from the adverse effects of noise. The lack of funds threw total responsibility for noise control to the states, which have had a spotty and generally poor record with respect to noise abatement( Shapiro ) Since the Act itself was not repealed, local and state governments may have been deterred from trying to regulate noise. Furthermore, failure to repeal the Act sent the usage that noise was not an important environmental concern.
As a result, in the United States, most police departments seem to be unwilling or unable to respond to noise-related problems in a way that provides any measure of genuine or timely control. Yet, in most cities, as noise pollution continues to grow – some say as much as 6-fold in the past IS years – so do complaints about noise. Complaints to police and other officials about noise are among the most frequent complaints by residents in urban environments; in 1 998, noise was the number one complaint to the Quality of Life Hotlist in New York City.
In 1996, the Federal Environmental Agency in Germany reported two out of three of its citizens had complained about excessive noise. (Bronzing 2:1-8) The number of people exposed to unhealthy levels of noise in the United States is unquestionably greater than it was in 1 974; the degree of oversight and control is unquestionably less. II. Research Body Noise pollution is the excessive noise in the environment, typically from planes, autos and industry. It also means the addition of sound to the environment beyond the natural sources, measured in intensity, duration, frequency and frequency of occurrence. Lorries & Lecher 681 ) Sources of excessive noise can include factory and construction noise, vehicle Noise, and musical amplification. (Owen & Filches 124) Everyone is sensitive to noise, and excessive noise produces stress and can cause health problems. Noise interferes with sleep and over periods of time can cause fatigue, 10 irritability, tension and anxiety. Sound activates the nervous system thus affecting functions of the endocrine, cardiovascular, and reproductive systems. Noise is “stresses’ and can increase blood vessels and cause intense pain at high level.
Sound levels are measured in decibels (db). The danger zone for hearing loss begins at about 85 db, a level present on school buses crowded with kids, or driving in an expressway with windows open. There are many daily activities that expose to sound levels that can permanently change. Rock musicians and people who listen to loud rock music are particularly at risk for hearing loss. Members Of the many famous bands suffer from tinnitus, a persistent ringing in the ears, or have lost a significant amount of their hearing.
Children are especially prone to turning up the volume and listening to music with earphones at dangerously high sound levels. In addition to the damaging effects of noise hearing the role of noise as a stresses has long been recognized. Although harmful effects of noise vary among individuals, noise levels above 85 to 90 decibels should be considered dangerous. Hearing loss can begin when daily noise averages 70 decibels or higher. (Santiago et al. 309) Effects on Sleep –at is common knowledge that noise can disturb sleep (that’s why we use alarm clocks).
Its a common phenomenon in Malaysia that people living in heavy traffic area are frequently awaken by noise at least occasionally,” and since the volume of traffic has constantly increased substantially then, it is likely that even more people are affected now. Bougainvillea et al. (1976) describe several factors that affect sleep disturbance: factors involving the stimulus itself (e. G. Type of noise, repetition, duration, intensity, etc. ), the stage of sleep at which the stimulus occurs, and individual variables (e. G. Tate of health, motivation to wake, etc. ). 11 Annoyance–One of the most salient effects of noise on humans is annoyance, which Million (1979) defines with the statement, “a noise is said to be annoying if an exposed individual or a group of individuals would reduce the noise, avoid, or leave the noisy area if possible” Annoyance due to noise depends on many factors, including several parameters of the noise itself. For example, louder noises are generally more annoying than quieter noises , though two sounds with equal intensity (I. . Loudness) may still result in different levels of annoyance. Indeed, patterned sounds appear to be less annoying than sounds that are randomly produced . Also, noises that are higher in pitch are generally rated as more annoying than lower-frequency Jose. And finally, annoyance depends on the regularity of the noise. That is, noises that remain constant in pitch and intensity are generally rated as less annoying than noises that change in pitch or intensity. Another factor affecting annoyance appears to be the source of the noise.
For example, it appears that noise produced by street traffic is less annoying than equally- intense noise that is produced by aircraft, an effect that was observed by Hall and colleagues (1 981), as well. Communication Interference–Noise pollution can have a considerable effect on communication. According to Berglund and Hassles (1 996), “there can be no doubt that noise can mask speech” . And as Miller (1 AAA) points out, even when speech is accurately understood, background noise may result in “greater pains on the part of the talker and listener than otherwise would be needed” .
Noise can obviously be very hazardous, in that it can preclude the conveyance of vital life-saving information. However, it is the more benign, everyday conversation that is more often what is disrupted by noise. This is not to say, though, that such disruption is not damaging. On the contrary, everyday inversion disruptions can lead to increased annoyance and anxiety, and as result may indirectly contribute to physiological complications such as the non-auditory physiological effects discussed previously. Oil) 12 Here are some tips to consider to prevent you to suffer from noise pollution: 1 . F you must live or work in a noisy area, wear hearing protectors to prevent exposure to blasts of every noise. 2. Limit your exposure to loud noise-several brief periods of noise are less depending than one long exposure. 3. Be careful bayou wear walkway-type stereos. Turn on a very minimal illume since its earphone is placed directly in your ear. When you can feel the vibration, the volume is turned up too high. The one sitting beside you would also be enjoying your music. 4. Have your hearing checked? Many who are conscientious about other health exams never have their hearing tested.
If you are all concerned about hearing loss, be tested. 5. Keep your home quiet. Whenever you buy an appliance, ask how quiet it is (not how loud it can go). Some labeled with decibel foam pads under appliances will cut their sounds. Padded carpeting cushions background sounds. (Santiago et al. 1 1) Ill. Summary, Conclusion & Recommendation We distributed questionnaires to 10 respondents for our research and these are the results: 90% of them lives in an urban place; all of them are aware of noise pollution; they are all listening to music.
None of our respondents like their music in a maximum volume, of them likes their music to be a little bit loud, 60% likes it to be moderated, 20% likes their music to be slightly moderated and 10% of them likes their music to be just in a soft volume. 80% of our respondents was once asked to reduce the volume of the music they are laying; 30% of them 13 was once asked for the music volume to be lowered in taxis, rooms etc. 70% of them uses headphones/earphones; Among the respondents who uses headphones/ earphones, 60% of them wanted the volume of their headphones/earphones to be slightly moderated and 10% wanted the volume to be just soft; Of the respondents feel angry whenever they hear a noise, 60% of them easily gets irritated, no one feels stressed, 10% are relaxed and 10% of the respondents are enjoyed; 20% of the respondents could study in a noisy place; 80% prefers to study in a library, while 10% prefers to study in room and the other 10% prefers in their house.
And 40% of our respondents have experienced to suffer from a persistent ringing in the ears. We believe that noise pollution affects the mood and mental health of the Mass Communication students in New Era University. Noise pollution can cause effects on sleep, annoyance and communication interference. Noise hurts. It hurts our mental health, our hearing and our enjoyment of life. Noise above safe levels leads to a number of known health impacts: * annoyance * stress * sleep loss * the inability to concentrate * the inability to learn
In order to prevent ourselves to suffer from the effects of noise pollution, we recommend the readers to wear hearing protectors, limit your exposure to loud noise, be careful if you wear walkway-type stereos, have your hearing checked and keep your home quiet. To avoid noise-induced hearing loss, pay attention to the noises around you 14 and turn down the volume whenever possible. Avoid or limit time spent in noisy sports events, rock concerts and night clubs. Wear adequate hearing protection, such as foam ear plugs or ear muffs, when you must be inn noisy environment or when using loud equipment.