The massive destructive power f volcanoes is no secret. They have been the cause of some of the worst natural disasters the world has ever seen. Tales from centuries ago recount the horrific damage they can cause and many Of these ancient stories are well known even today. But with the modern advances of technology, we can gain new insight into the incredibly destructive power of volcanoes. Never before have we really grasped just what fury these erupt with. And with satellite imagery now available, perhaps we are for the first time really understanding the true epic scale of a volcanic eruption.
In these photos taken from space, lull see just how wide their damage scale is. It is almost hard to believe. Volcanoes vary a great deal in their destructive power. Some volcanoes explode violently, destroying everything in a mile radius within minutes, while other volcanoes seep out lava so slowly that you can safely walk all around them. The severity of the eruption depends mostly on the composition of the magma. The first question to address is: why does the magma erupt at all?
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The erupting force generally comes from internal gas pressure. The material that forms magma contains a lot of dissolved gases that have been suspended in the magma solution. The gases are kept in this dissolved state as long as the confining pressure of the surrounding rock is greater than the vapor pressure of the gas. When this balance shifts and vapor pressure becomes greater than the confining pressure, the dissolved gas is allowed to expand, and forms small gas bubbles, called vesicles, in the magma.
This happens if one of two things occurs: The confining pressure decreases, due to decompression from the magma rising from a higher pressure point to a lower pressure point. The vapor pressure increases because the magma lolls, initiating a crystallization process that enriches the gas content of the magma. In either case, what you get is magma filled with tiny gas bubbles, which have a much lower density than the surrounding magma, and so push out to escape. This is the same thing that happens when you open a bottle of soda, particularly after shaking it up.
When you decompress the soda (by opening the bottle), the tiny gas bubbles push out and escape. If you shake the bottle up first, the bubbles are all mixed up in the soda so they push a lot of the soda out with them. This is true for volcanoes as well. As the bubbles escape, they push the magma out, causing a spewing eruption. The nature of this eruption depends mainly on the gas content and the viscosity of the magma material. Viscosity is just the ability to resist flow essentially, it is the opposite of fluidity.
If the magma has a high viscosity, meaning it resists flow very well, the gas bubbles will have a hard time escaping from the magma, and so will push more material up, causing a bigger eruption. If the magma has a lower viscosity, the gas bubbles will be able to escape from the magma more easily, so the lava won’t erupt as violently. Of course, this is balanced with gas content if the magma contains more gas bubbles, it will erupt more violently, and if it contains less gas, it will erupt more calmly.
Both factors are determined by the composition of the magma. Generally, viscosity is determined by the proportion of silicon in the magma, because of the metal’s reaction to oxygen, an element found in most magmas. Gas content varies depending on what sort of material melted to form the magma. As a general rule, the most explosive eruptions come from magmas that have high gas levels and high viscosity, while the most subdued eruptions come from gammas with low gas levels and low viscosity. Volcanic eruptions don’t often fall into easy categories, however.
Most eruptions occur in several stages, with varying degrees of destructiveness. If the viscosity and the gas pressure are low enough, lava will flow slowly onto the earth’s surface when the volcano erupts, with minimal explosion. While these effusive lava flows can reap considerable damage on wildlife and manmade structures, they are not particularly dangerous to people because they move so slowly -” you have plenty of time to get out of the way. If there is a good deal of pressure, forever, a volcano will begin its eruption with an explosive launch of material into the air.
Typically, this eruption column is composed of hot gas, ash and parasitic rocks volcanic material in solid form. There are many sorts of explosive eruptions, varying significantly in size, shape and duration. Active volcanoes pose many hazards to life and property. Some hazards, like huge lava flows and explosive blasts associated with volcanic eruptions, are spectacular headline grabbers and recognized by everyone. Others, like glowing avalanches and ash falls, are much less flamboyant and less known y the general public, but they can be just as deadly.
A few hazards, such as rockeries and mudflows, can occur even in the absence of an eruption. Lava flows are sheets and tongues of liquid rock expelled from the crown or flank of an effusively erupting volcano and are probably the best known volcanic hazard. They are usually depicted in books and movies as roaring down the erupting volcano’s steep slopes to inundate houses, cars, trees, and expendable movie extras. Although some lava flows can travel at 50-60 MPH, others move at human walking speeds or slower.
The speed of a flow upends on the viscosity of the lava and the incline of the volcanoes’ slope. The destructive power Of lava flows lies in the high temperature Of the rock, which can set structures aflame, and in the size and mass of the flow, which can engulf or crush even large buildings. Some lava flows are small enough for a person to step across and because little damage; on the other hand, lava flows like the Columbia River Basalts are large enough to cover entire states and destroy everything in their path. The explosive blast is the “feature presentation” of a (surprise! Explosively erupting volcano. It is an outburst of reagents of rock and lava driven by expanding gases that were dissolved in the erupting lava at great depths. These blasts may throw great blocks of rock many miles. However, the superheated blast cloud itself, which expands out from the volcano at hundreds of miles per hour, enveloping and searing anything in its path, is more destructive. The destructive power of the blasts lies in the high velocity winds (exceeding wind speeds in hurricanes) within the cloud and the very high temperatures of the gas.
The blasts are capable of destroying all life within many miles of the volcano in a matter of minutes. The main blast at Mount SST. Helene destroyed more than 230 square miles of forest in a few seconds. The destroyed area is pictured to the upper right of the shattered cone of the mountain in this shuttle image. The Destructive Power of Volcanic Ash Volcanic ash plumes will cause disruption to aviation movements, cancellation of domestic and international flights for prolonged periods of time.
Clouds of volcanic ash will alter weather patterns. Large accumulations of ash on the ground will lead to the immediate destruction of entire local ecosystems, as well as the collapse of roofing on houses and buildings. During the massive volcanic eruptions, the ash fall will become so dense that daylight will turn the sky pitch black severely restricting visibility. The darkened ash sky lowers temperatures during daylight hours. Ash falls are also accompanied by thunder, lightning and a Strong smell of sulfur.
The Destructive Power of Parasitic Avalanche The most devastating effect of volcanic ash comes from parasitic flows, which are high-density mixture Of hot, dry rock fragments and hot gas from the volcanic explosion, which can move at high speed, traveling at 80-100 k/h, and reach temperatures of 200-700 degree Celsius. These occur when a volcanic eruption creates an avalanche of hot ash, gas, and rocks that flow at high speed down the flanks of the volcano. Usually, huge landslides take place at an eruption sight, breaking down large numbers of trees.
The volcanic blast burns forest, crops, buildings, houses, and destroys roads, and everything in the area of direct impact. Also, when a volcano erupts, cascades of huge Lars, which form from melted snow and ice and a mixture of water and rock debris will rush down, flooding and destroying the riverbanks and bridges. The Destructive Power of Volcanic Gas Fluoride poisoning and death can occur in livestock that graze on ash-covered grass if is present in high concentrations.
People with health problems such as asthma or emphysema will have severe respiratory problems. An average volcano can coughs up about 3,000 metric tons of sulfur dioxide each day. When trillions of metric tons of sulfur dioxide combine with water vapor in the upper atmosphere, it can reflect sunlight away from the Earth, cooling temperatures on the ground. The volcanic gases pose the greatest hazard and are the most lethal to people, animals, vegetation and property are sulfur oxide, carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide and hydrogen fluoride.
Massive volcanic eruptions will also release trillions of metric tons of sulfur aerosols into the stratosphere, which will lower the temperature around the entire planet, depleting the Earth’s ozone layer. Scientists have found that several volcanic eruptions during the past century have caused a decline in the average temperature of the Earth’s surface (in the Northern Hemisphere) by 1 degree Fahrenheit for a period of three years following the eruption of Mount Punctuation in the Philippines in the year 1991.
Mount Punctuation ejected about 0 million metric tons of sulfur dioxide into the stratosphere. During major explosive eruptions, huge amount volcanic gas, aerosol droplets are injected into the stratosphere. The large amount of sulfur dioxide will cause global cooling while volcanic carbon dioxide (a green-house gas) will cause global warming. The Destructive Power of Ocean-Wide Tsunamis All the earthquakes and volcanic activity that will take place during the reign of the Antichrist’s and the “Great Tribulation” will give rise to the formation of ocean-wide tsunamis.
A tsunami, which can be caused by earthquakes, mudslides, volcanic eruptions and large impact events, is a series of waves generated when a body of water is rapidly displaced on a massive scale. These giant waves can be also caused by seaquake and the eruption of volcanoes in the ocean floor. The colossal earthquakes predicted to occur during the “Great Tribulation” will cause massive eruptions of all the volcanoes on the sea floor displacing large volumes of water. The energy resulting from these eruptions and falling debris will uplift the water column forming mega tsunamis.
The colossal earthquakes mentioned in the Bible ay cause the sea floor to travel hundreds Of meters, setting into motion immense amounts of water. The resulting tsunami will move the entire depth of the ocean (often dozens of kilometers deep). The waves up to one hundred meters high resulting from such catastrophic events can travel across the ocean at speeds up one thousand kilometers per hour. In 1 737, the largest tsunami recorded in history measured sixty three meters above sea level when it landed in the Siberian Kampuchea Peninsula.
The December 26, 2004, Indian Ocean Earthquake, which took place in Indonesia, had a 9. 15 magnitude on the Richter Scale. This earthquake triggered a series of tsunamis that killed approximately two hundred and thirty thousand people. The tsunami traveled over a vast area ranging from Indonesia, Thailand, and the northwestern coast of Malaysia to thousands of kilometers away in Bangladesh, India, Sir Lankan, and the Maldives, including Somalia, Kenya and Tanzania in eastern Africa. It is believed that the Indian Ocean Tsunami is the deadliest recorded in human history.
The Lord Jesus makes an unmistakable reference to the terror that these cataclysmic events will unleash upon humanity when He said, “And on the Earth distress of nations, with perplexity, he sea and the waves roaring, men’s hearts failing them from fear and the expectation of those things which are coming on the Earth. The destructive power of a volcano is one of the most violent and deadly of all natural forces. In a short period of time, these massive explosions of the earth’s crust can shatter whole communities.
Volcanoes are very destructive no matter how big or how small they erupt at. They cause the highest amount of deaths and the greatest amount of damage. Of the TVВ??’0 major types of Volcanoes, antiseptic and basaltic, the two typical volcanoes begin life when a mass of low-density gamma forces its way to the surface. When the density of the rising magma is the same as that of the surrounding rock, it gathers in a magma chamber. Any rise in pressure in the chamber may now push the magma upwards through cracks in the overlying rock.
As the magma traveling up a crack approaches the surface, the pressure from the overlying rocks reduces; gases are released from the magma and expand so suddenly that an explosion rips open a funnel shaped vent (called a diatribe) to the surface. The lava that blasts out of the vent then cools, to form cinders, ash and dust – all referred to as “Depart”. A ring of depart collects around the vent and, as the eruption subsides, this blocks up the diatribe. Volcanoes have erupted in many different places. Volcanoes have erupted in The Philippines, Java, Papua New Guiana & Hawaii and many other places. The Ring of Fire”, located around the Pacific Ocean, is 20 or so places with active volcanoes in them joined by one big imaginary line that forms a circle (or “Ring”) when scaled down to the Somewhere in the world an eruption occurs at least once a month. Whether it be big or small it doesn’t really matter at all. If it kills 1 person or 1 000 people t is still counted as an eruption. In some countries volcanoes are common and erupt frequently as in Hawaii. But in other countries like Australia there are no eruptions at all. Over 550 volcanoes have erupted on the surface Of the Earth since human kind has been able to record history.
Their destructiveness has claimed the lives of over 200,000 people during the last 500 years with 26,000 deaths between 1980 and 1990 alone. They have also cause an innumerable amount of property damage. The biggest eruption of the twentieth century was the eruption of Unfortunate on the peninsula of Alaska. The amount of lava that erupted measured to roughly 15 cubic kilometers. All of the lava erupted equaled to the amount of 30 times the amount of lava that came from Mount Saint Helene and it is also the equivalent of 230 years of eruptions at Mount Killable.
The eruption lasted for 60 hours on June 6, 1920. The biggest eruption, despite its size, was not the most destructive, for the most destructive was the eruption of Mount Saint Helene in Oregon during the week of May 18th, 1980. This eruption mainly caused just loss Of property, because many people didn’t expect the volcano to erupt. Although some people did die, this volcano was kind of weak compared to the size of the eruption and amount of lives lost in other eruptions like Tambala, Indonesia in 181 5 where 92,000 people died. Potential benefits of volcanoes Earth is the planet where humans live.
Earth has many benefit potentials that humans can use for continuing life. Despite the benefit potentials, earth also has hazardous potential that can be very dangerous to the continuity of human life, for example, landslide, tsunami, earthquake, volcanic eruption, earthquake and many others natural hazards. Among all natural hazards, laconic eruption and earthquake are examples of natural hazards that are caused by volcanic activity. Natural hazards that are caused by volcanic activity usually take many victims. Met. Vesuvius is one of the most famous volcanic eruption that has ever been recorded.
Met. Vesuvius buried the cities of Pompeii and Herculean in 79 AD (Lockwood & Haziest, 2010, p. 409). Despite its hazards, volcanic activity also bring many benefits to human life in many aspects, including environment, mining and economy. The benefits of volcanoes must be studied and applied to human life since volcanic activities eave great potential to become very useful for human. Without doubt, volcanoes also bring many benefits to human life in various fields such as environment, mining industries and economy, despite being a dangerous natural hazard.
Firstly, environmental impact is one of the benefits of the volcanoes. Environmental effects also have two important utilities for human life such as biochemical cycle and fertility of soil. The biochemical cycle has an important role on transformation of chemicals in ecosystem. The carbon cycle is so critical for humans. Humans need carbon in lots of parts of life. Carbon oxide plays an essential role in an environmental process. As Lockwood and Haziest (2010) states, within the atmosphere, troposphere has some possess which are called “greenhouse gas”.
Because of the greenhouse gas effect, the earth is warmed up. “The ground converts many wavelengths of solar energy to infrared radiation, which we feel heat”. Simultaneously, volcanoes include abundant gases like water, carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide. Resulting from the human Firstly, environmental impact is one of the benefits of the the human behaviors, quotient amount Of carbon dioxide has been rising into he atmosphere. In an ancient time since temperatures were great, gathering of carbon dioxide was magnificent. This unusual temperature led to warmer atmosphere (p. 399).
Lockwood and Haziest say that when the heat goes up in the air, it also makes the oceans warmer since the oceans take the carbon dioxide from air so it helps to raise organic action (p. 399). Carbon that comes from the volcanoes do not damage earth, also they provides the carbon balance in the earth. Hard emphasized that volcanoes affects to the worldwide circulation in every way. Volcanoes’ effects could be direct by leasing carbon dioxide to the air and indirect by producing ash and aerosols to the ground. These are harmless effects although they affect the stratosphere (2005, p. 7).
Lockwood and Haziest (2010) explains carbon is in the structure of the lives, food and lots of materials. Therefore, one can say that the carbon has a very important effect to the continuity of life and volcanoes help that effect. Volcanic sulfur provides protein in the bodies of human beings and all of the other living organisms like carbon dioxide so it becomes more and more important for humans. Sulfur has a multivalent tauter and because of that, its cycle is more complex than the carbon cycle. ‘Volcanic sulfur is released primarily later as acid rain or mists containing a mixture of HOSTS, HAS, and sulfate ions (SO-2 4).
Sulfate ions are also the dominant form of sulfur where it is present in water bodies and seas”. Decaying vegetation on land has an effect on ecosystem and it maintains a reservoir of sulfur. Also, nutrient recycling supports the ecosystem, too. However, recycling is not the most efficient way for sulfates to return to the air. Similarly, the oceans include sulfur, too by phytoplankton. The hydroxylation is consumed at higher levels in food chain and it is regulated by the shallow sea temperatures. “In the counterbalance, phytoplankton releases sulfur back to the air in the form of timidity sulfide (DMS)” (p. 401).
Rebook cited in Self; Kelly et al. Cited in Self; Healer et al cited in Self all state that DMS has an important global role in environment by nucleating water droplets to form the clouds which cause the atmosphere to be cool because when there is a DMS affect, the sunlight is effected back out into space. These could be called as climatic effects. The effects also caused by the volcanic aerosols. Short-lived and intermittent sulfuric acid aerosol clouds raise the temperatures and zonal, hemispheric, atmospheric circulation patterns or the location of the volcano could be the reason of the aerosol clouds’ effects (2005, p. 55). In conclusion, the volcanoes have a lot of effects on nature and people’s lives that one cannot feel directly. They are necessary for the protein development and the quality of the natural life. In order to understand the benefits of sulfur and carbon, one must understand the volcanoes’ effects within the cycle of life. Fertility of soil is the other environmental benefit of volcanoes. Firstly, volcanic soils have good water retention. Scheming argued that volcanic ashes have very important ingredients for the fertility Of soils. Ash atoms can keep the water well.
Volcanic soil retains water for a long time and lets go of it little by little for vegetation (2004, p. 278). Plants grow well when soil can keep the water, because plants need water and sun. Ping emphasized that volcanic ash has special mass which is low and figure which has high porosity, for hold moisture (cited in Lebanon, 2009, p. 8). Circulation of water is important for lands and roots must feed on water from the soil for growth (Maximums & Moor cited in Lebanon, 2009, p. 8). The second useful property of volcanic soils is phosphorus retention. These soils have phosphorus for plants. The propensity to retrain phosphorus of volcanic soils is very high, due to high content of AY and Fee compounds” (Gulling & Cassock cited in Lebanon, 2009, p. 8). This makes them efficient for farming. When soil has enough phosphorus, these soils need lower fertilization and produce higher yields (Lebanon, 2009, p. 8). Volcanic ashes increase soils yield. According to Bore and Rubin volcanic oils increase size of farming and forested area, total area is more than 5. 3 million hectares in Chile and 50-60% are cultivable lands (cited in Bore & Rubin, 2003, p. 69). The third factor is pH.
Soil which includes volcanic ashes have pH’s higher than 5 and lower than 7 (Ping cited in Lebanon, 2009, p. 8). “This has significant implications with respect to the ability to fix elements and fluorine sorption is maximal at pH 6. 0” (Crooning et al. Cited in Lebanon, 2009, p. 8). Normally soils pH level is 7 but when H+ ions rise pH level decreases (Sabbath, Denned, Humanism, Licitly & Monsanto, 201 1, p. 1). Volcanic ashes bring better pH level for plants. Volcanic ashes increase soils yield, because volcanic soils increase water, phosphorus retention and brings the best pH level for plants.
Volcanism will positively affect the biochemical cycle and fertility of soil. All things considered, one can not deny the fact that volcanism has lots of benefits on the environment. Secondly mining activities can be traced way back in pre historical times. Today, the mining sector has improved greatly and more multinational, private owned and small entrepreneurs are largely participating across the globe. It states that in Volcanic Minerals” in gold and copper deposits are very common precious minerals and are found in ore bodies associated with porphyry.
Porphyry is a Greek word for purple dye and was originally applied to a purple-red rock with phenotypes of alkali field spar that was used in Egypt and it is generally used to refer to igneous rocks of any composition that is made up of crystals in fined-grained masses. These deposits forms under extraneousness and is related with subsection zones. Erosion wipes of rocks above and exposes the normalization. Gold and copper deposits are spread all over in large amounts found in sulfide minerals. Mining gold and copper requires huge amounts of rocks, often in open pits.
These deposits are most of the time 3-8 km In depth and copper constitutes less the 1 % of the rock (2013, p. 7). Porphyry copper deposits can also be related to coeval volcanic rocks. Although porphyry’ ore deposits and call-alkaline volcanism seems to be mentioned, the clear relationships between the two occurrences are favorable for conservation. In the Parallel Negro District, northwest Argentina: call- alkaline, composite extraneousness, and some km in diameter, which cuts and lies over a pre-Mesozoic basement can still be visible.
A study was conducted by Lambdas and he concluded that magnetism in the Parallel Negro district started in the late tertiary with production of extrusive, intrusive, igneous breccias and tuffs of largely antiseptic composition. The placement of andesine domes around the surrounding of the complex follows or maybe on the margins of caldera, with dikes, sills and flows of andesine and basalt . The next findings was the passive placement of a motioned intrusive and evidence from the drill proved that almost all copper deposits occurred in potassium silicate core as chlorinated magnetite, minor molybdenum and ornate (Silliest, 1973, up. 07). In a separate research in El Salvador, Chile: some of the highest parts of the alteration zone are capped by royalties in parts and had an intrusive origin , rollick and antiseptic wall rocks at he lower altitudes (Sweeney & Trash cited in Silliest, 1973, p. 809). As mentioned in “Deposits of Parasitic Sediment Gravity Flows”, nickel is another very precious mineral found in ore deposits. Its deposits are mined from gravestone belts in ancient volcanic terrains and its ore is related with sometimes. Commonalities weight of MGM O and huge amounts of mineral Levine and are derived from melting mantles.
The texture is an undergrowth of long, crystals of olivine and with a unique texture called spinning. Nickel is mostly alloyed with other metals to protect it from erosion, heat and increase its hardness. These alloys are utilize in both industrial and commercial goods and most of it is used in stainless steel which contain 8% nickel, 67% used ship building food processing equipment and in hospital. Nickel is also use in military armor plate, alkaline batteries insecticides and in coins. The role of technology has widened the scope of mining (201 3, up. 2-4).
This clearly demonstrated that nickel is the most efficient factor in meaning industries Rondo, Fare, Bray, Chapel and Wright stated that nowadays mining is not only done on land but under see water. Oil exploration, gold, gas and many other precious minerals are mined under see. In a study conducted in Brothers and Rumble II Ackerman arc volcanoes, offshore New Zealand, massive sulfide samples have been found. Both are caldera-forming volcanoes with brothers more tactic and Rumble II is andesine in composition. The sulfide samples are dominated by Cue-Fee-Baa-+_BP. And a small content of Zen-Fee baa BP normalization.
Gold which is more than 6. 1 pump, has association with proposes that two hydrothermal organization have first rise temperature than low temperature (2003, up. 217-233). Oxidation suggested that some of the deposits are old, fluid inclusion micro thermometric dada show saltiness fall predominantly between 3. 0-3. 4 wet % An CLC similar to see water values (3. 2 wet %). Almost 15% of Brothers salinity is both lower (2. 2 wet %) and higher (3. )%) than sea water. Homogeneities temperatures for type 1 are between 1 75 and 322 degree for brothers and between 205 and 268 degree for Rumble II.
Decreases in temperature and/or oxidation change of the hydrothermal fluid are the main ways in which gold is deposited at the carmaker vent sites (up. 217-233). “This was achieved by mixing the hydrothermal fluid with ambient seawater within what are infrared to have been Volcanic eruption can serve as a source f raw materials. In many areas, scoria cones and basaltic lava are mined for layers to serve different functions. Hosing stated that pumice,which is formed from volcanic eruption is a material formed during lava crystallization when gases are discharged. The structure of the cell is produced by bubble formation or when gases found in the molten lava moving from volcano is captured by cooling. The cells are stretched, parallel and connected to each other sometimes. Volcanic pumice, around the world has been utilized as additives in the manufacturing of low-weight concrete.
The blocks are fragile ND cannot be used for high buildings but its materials insulate perfectly due to the high premium level (2004, up. 1). In Germany, they are sold as low weight building blocks and a big industry in the Endowed basins has emerged and nearly all the price is mined that has been formed 1 3000 years ago (Scheming, 2004, p. 280). Nevi cited in Hosing emphasizes that an example of low-weight concrete is the satisfactory concrete. It is made using volcanic pumice which has two to three higher layers compared to a normal concrete.
Volcanic pumice and volcanic ash are pizzicato materials due to their behavior with free lime in the hydration of cement. These materials can improve durability, strength rate gain and liberation rate of heat which is useful for mass concrete (2004, p. 1). Volcanic pumice can serve as a raw material and its presence in cement or concrete production gives it a better quality. Parasitic flow deposit and parasitic surge deposits are the two types of end member parasitic sediment gravity flow deposits. Parasitic flow deposit are thicker, loosely sorted and frequently containing excess fine crystals ash in the matrix.