Aviation Geography Assignment

Aviation Geography Assignment Words: 7218

|Subject |Aviation Geography | |Professor |Dr. Olgun Cicek | |Title |United Arab Emirates | |Date |18th May 2008 | |Group members |Rashid sharafuddin |

Table of contents: |Abstract |3 | |Introduction |3 | |Findings | | |3. 1 Physical features | | |3. 1. 1 Introduction |3 – 5 | |3. . 2 Location |5 ??? 6 | |3. 1. 3 Demography |6 ??? 7 | |3. 1. 4 Climate |7 | |3. 1. 5 Religion |8 ??? 9 | | | | |3. Cultural factors | | |3. 2. 1 Traditional life |9 ??? 14 | |3. 2. 2 Fashion and Lifestyle |14 -15 | |3. 2. 3 Clothes |15 ??? 18 | |UAE National Dress ??? Female | | |UAE National Dress ??? Male | |3. 2. 4 Poetry, Dance, Music and Drama |18 ??? 19 | | | | |3. 3 Demand for travel and tourism | | |3. 3. 1 Trends |19 ??? 20 | |3. 3. 2 Reasons |20 – 22 | | | | |3. Supply of travel and tourism | | |3. 4. 1 Transport |22 -24 | |3. 4. 2 Attractions |24 -25 | |3. 4. 3 Accommodation |26 | |3. 4. Organizations |26 – 28 | |References |29 ??? 30 | |Appendix |31 – 41 | 1. Abstract: This research is about the geography of the U. A. E. It talks about the physical features of the U. A. E. such as the location, demography, climate, regions etc. It also includes information about the cultural factors such as their lifestyle, language spoken etc.

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We will also included information about the demand and supply of travel and tourism which has many sub divisions. 2. Introduction: A country in the middle of the world in an area called the Middle East, the U. A. E. is a flourishing destination in all aspects. The country has a very brief history behind it with just a couple of decades in the past to talk about. But since the old days where U. A. E was regarded as a desert land and rightly so, it has evolved into a completely new world. 3. Findings: 3. 1 Physical features: 3. 1. Introduction: The United Arab Emirates ancient history cannot be separated from the greater history of Oman and the Arabian Gulf which stretches back for thousands of years. Excavation and archaeological finds in many places in the United Arab Emirates prove that a great civilization has prospered in this area dating back to about 4,000 BC and that this civilization had contacts and exchange with other neighboring civilizations. In medieval history this area, consisting of parts of the Arabian Peninsula, was the domicile of Arab tribes.

After the Greeks, several attempts were made by the Romans to dominate the Gulf and the Arabian Peninsula but all of them failed and vanished in the sands of the Arabian Desert. With the emergence of Islam, a new phase in the history of the area began – Arab. Commander Amr bin Al Aas, who conquered the Gulf and cleared it from invaders, introduced the new religion therein. The area thus began to enjoy an era of stability under the banner of Islam. In the era of the Umayyah Dynasty, the Gulf became a worldwide centre for navigation and maritime trade.

Prior to independence, the UAE was Trucial Oman, also known as the Trucial States and the component sheikhdoms of the territory were under British protection. Although from 1892 the United Kingdom assumed responsibility for the sheikdoms defense and external relations, they were otherwise autonomous and followed the traditional form of Arab monarchy with each ruler having virtually absolute power over his subjects. In 1952 a local council, the Trucial, comprising the rulers of the seven sheikhdoms, was established.

The project of the council was to encourage the adoption of common policies in administrative matters, possibly leading to a federation of the states. Petroleum, the basis of the area’s modern prosperity, was first discovered in 1958 when deposits were located beneath the coastal water of Abu Dhabi – the largest of the sheikhdoms. Onshore petroleum was found in Abu Dhabi in 1960. Commercial exploitation of petroleum began there in 1962, providing the state with a greatly increased revenue. In August 1966 Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan ruled Abu Dhabi.

Under his rule Abu Dhabi was transformed with considerable income from the petroleum industry allocated for public works and provision of welfare services. In 1966 petroleum was discovered in Dubai, which also developed rapidly as a result. In January 1968 the United Kingdom announced its intention of withdrawing British military force from the area by 1971. In July 1971 six of the Trucial States (Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Sharjah, Umm Al Qaiwain, Ajman and Fujairah) agreed on a Federal Constitution for achieving independence as the United Arab Emirates (UAE).

The UAE became independent on the 2nd December, 1971. The remaining sheikhdom, Ras Al Khaimah, joined the UAE in February 1972. At independence Shiekh Zayed took office as the first President of the UAE. On the 6th December, 1971 the UAE became the 18th member of the League of Arab States and on the 9th December, 1971 it became the 132nd member of United Nations. The UAE was a founder member of the Co-operation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf (GCC) in May 1981. The GCC aims to achieve greater political and economic integration between the Gulf countries. . 1. 2 Location: As said and seen on the world map U. A. E is a part of the middle east countries and is located near the strait of hormous with neighbors being Oman and Saudi Arabia. U. A. E is engulfed by land on two sides and by sea on the other two, with the Arabian Sea towards the east of the country and the Arabian gulf on the other. Geographically located very close to the equator at 24 degree north and 54 degree east the country is bound to be very hot. It is 4 hours ahead of the Greenwich standard time.

The country covers a total area of about 83,600 sq ft with all of it being land and no water on land. [pic] 3. 1. 3 Demography The country not being very big in size is not a reason for its population not being big. There is a large population that this country holds estimating about 7 million by 2008, with major portions residing in Abu Dhabi (capital) and Dubai (commercial capital). The population growth rate of the country in phenomenal with a 3. 833% every year. Surveys report a 16. 06% /1000 birth rate for males and a 2. 3% /1000 birth rate for females. As with a large population the place holds many different communities like Hindu, Muslim, Sikh and Christianity and a very vast spectrum of nationalities ranging from the far eastern countries like Japan and Singapore to the western countries like the United States of America. Also with a varied number of nationalities living in the country there is a huge diversity in the languages spoken, ranging from Urdu, Hindi, Bangladeshi, Malayalam to the regional languages like Arabic and Persian. . 1. 4 Climate: Straddling the Tropic of Cancer, the UAE has a sub-tropical arid climate and is warm and sunny in winter, but hot and humid during the summer months. The humidity is particularly high in the coastal areas. Rainfall is virtually non-existent, with occasional short showers occurring mainly in winter (December to March). Localized thunderstorms sometimes occur in summer. Dubai enjoys an arid subtropical climate, with blue skies and sunshine all year round.

The hottest months are between June and September, when temperatures can soar to 113??F (45??C) and more during the day and humidity levels are very high. Even the sea temperature touches on 104??F (40??C) during the summer months, and swimming pools at hotels are usually cooled to be refreshing. Temperatures are only slightly more moderate the rest of the year, the coolest time being between December and March. There is very little rainfall in Dubai, but when showers do fall it is mainly in the cooler months. Jan |Feb |Mar |Aprl |May |June |July |Aug |Sept |Oct |Nov |Dec | |Temperature in ??C |24 |25 |29 |33 |38 |39 |40 |40 |39 |35 |30 |26 | |Rainfall in mm |11 |38 |34 |10 |3 |1 |2 |3 |1 |2 |4 |10 | |[pic] |[pic] |[pic] |[pic] |[pic] |[pic] |[pic] |[pic] |[pic] |[pic] |[pic] |[pic] | | | 3. 1. 5 Religion: Article 7 of the UAE’s Provisional Constitution declares Islam the official state religion of the Union. The Government funds or subsidizes almost 95 percent of Sunni mosques and employs all Sunni imams; approximately 5 percent of Sunni mosques are entirely private, and several large mosques have large private endowments.

The government distributes guidance on religious sermons to mosques and imams, whether Sunni or Shi’a, and monitors all sermons for political content. The Shi’a minority is free to worship and maintain its own mosques. All Shi’a mosques are considered private and receive no funds from the government. Within the UAE, Shi’a imams are government-appointed only in Dubai. Shi’a Muslims in Dubai may pursue Shi’a family law cases through a special Shi’a council rather than the Shari’a courts. Dubai has large expatriate communities of Hindus, Sikhs, and Christians.

Non-Muslim groups can own their own houses of worship, wherein they can practice their religion freely, by requesting a land grant and permission to build a compound. Groups that do not have their own buildings must use the facilities of other religious organizations or worship in private homes. While the UAE doesn’t offer any federal-level method of granting official status to religious groups, the individual emirates may exercise autonomy in officially recognizing a particular religious denomination. For instance, Dubai granted legal status to The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in 1993.

Dubai is also the only emirate that has Hindu temples and a Sikh Gurdwara. In early 2001, ground was broken for the construction of several additional churches on a parcel of land in Jebel Ali donated by the government of Dubai to four Protestant congregations and a Roman Catholic congregation. Construction on the first Greek Orthodox Church in Dubai (to be called St. Mary’s) began at the end of 2005. The land for the construction of the church was also donated by the government to the Greek Orthodox community of Dubai.

Financial support to non-Muslim groups from the Dubai government is limited to donated land for the construction of churches and other religious facilities, including cemeteries. They are permitted to raise money from among their congregate and to receive financial support from abroad. Non-Muslim religious groups are permitted to openly advertise group functions, however, proselytizing or distributing religious literature is strictly prohibited under penalty of criminal prosecution, imprisonment, and deportation for engaging in behavior offensive to Islam. 3. 2 Cultural factors: . 2. 1 Traditional life The tribe has been the principal building block of UAE society since successive waves of migrations, beginning in the middle of the first millennium BC, brought Arab tribes to the region, initially from Yemen through Oman and later from central and northern Arabia. The varied terrain that these tribes inhabited, i. e. desert, oasis, mountain and coast, dictated the traditional lifestyles that evolved over the centuries, but a universal thread was the resourcefulness that the people displayed in exploiting to the limit their harsh environment.

This sustainable use of meager resources was assisted by the age old social structure in which each family was traditionally bound by obligations of mutual assistance to its immediate relatives and to the tribe as a whole. This was an homogenous society where tribal affinities were reinforced by a common religion, Islam, and a common language, Arabic. The largest tribe of the UAE, the Bani Yas, roamed the vast sandy areas that cover almost all of the emirates of Abu Dhabi and Dubai.

Other tribes, too such as the Awamir and Manasir, shared this challenging environment for numerous generations, guarding their much prized knowledge of where to obtain water in the harsh terrain. The patterns of their economic exploitation varied over time, but all the sub-tribes and clans were accustomed to wander great distances with their camels in search of grazing, moving as entire family units; almost all Bani Yas families, with the exception of fishing groups like the Al Rumaithat, returned to a home in one of the oasis settlements at certain times of the year.

Much-prized date gardens were cultivated in the hollows of the huge dunes at Liwa, tapping the water trapped beneath the absorbent sands. In the oasis of Al Ain the luxuriant date gardens cultivated by the Dhawahir were nurtured by an efficient traditional irrigation system bringing water from aquifers in the mountains, a system which is still in use today. In these favorable conditions other trees besides palms could grow, such as figs, mangoes, oranges, pomegranates, grapes, bananas and, in particular, limes.

Lucerne for animal fodder and a limited variety of vegetables mostly sweet potatoes and onions, were cultivated inside walled palm groves. Pearling constituted just another means of exploiting all the reso7urces available to the tribal people. As pearling flourishing an increasing number of the able bodied men participated in the dividing expeditions during four months in the summer tending their date gardens in the winter. These long periods away from home meant that great responsibility was placed on the women of the family, both economically and socially.

Eventually many of the Liwa-based sub tribes of the Bani Yas formed cooperatives which jointly owned a boat and shared the proceeds of the sale of the pearls according to an established arrangements, giving the biggest share to the captain, a larger share to the divers than the haulers and leaving some money aside to finance the preparations for the following year. It was due to pearling that, over several generals, some tribes became more specialized in one economic activity or another and became tied to particular locations. Life in the mountains presented its own challenges.

Here fertile soil can be found in many places, such as in the wadis and the outwash plains on either side of the rugged peaks. In the narrow wadis falaj like water courses were used to irrigate terraced gardens tended by extended families. Domestic animals, sheep, goats and some cows, were kept b the wadis dwellers. Donkeys were the preferred beast of burden, but camels and bulls were also used for tasks such as drawing water. Important mountain oases such as Masafi and Manama are situated away from the wais in areas where good soil on level ground permitted more intensive cultivation.

Extensive date gardens watered by ground water trapped under the gravel plains were cultivated on the Ras Al Khaimah coastal strip on the western flank of the Hajar Mountains and on the East Coast plain bordering the Indian Ocean. Because of the ready access to trading, fishing, agriculture and husbandry, the inhabitants of the East coast and the plains near Ras Al Khaimah traditionally led a more settled existence than their western desert counterparts for whom travel over considerable distances was an essential survival strategy. The camel, uniquely adapted to life in the desert, was the mainstay of the

Bedouin. Not only a useful mount and beast of burden on long treks across inhospitable terrain, it also provided food, clothing, household items and recreation, and at the end of the day was a primary source of wealth. In many cases camel milk and the products derived from it were the only source of protein for the entire family for months on end. Young male camels were slaughtered to provide meat for feasts. Informal camel races were held during festivities and camel hide was used to make bags and other useful utensils, while find cloaks were woven from camel hair.

The date palm, capable of survival even in the midst of the most inhospitable dunes, rivals the camel in its adaptation to life in one of the severest climates in the world. The date palm can tolerate very high salinity and thrives even in intense heat. As a cultivated fruit tree, the date palm is propagated from side shoots that grow out from the base of a mature trunk. Today, tissue culture is also used to propagate plants. The newly planted saplings need to be watered regularly. In the desert the water is carried from the well ??? one leather bagful at a time.

After months, or even years, the young bushy plant’s roots will reach the water table and be self sufficient. However, its rate of growth and eventual yield of dates is significantly influenced by the amount and quality of the water available. Obviously ate gardens watered by aflaj or modern irrigation systems are more likely to thrive. The inhabitants of the UAE made every possible use of the resources to be found on the beaches, sand banks, creeks and inshore islands of the country’s 600 kilometer log Arabian Gulf coast.

They also colonized the many more distant islands. The extensive tidal shallows, which are characteristics of much of these coasts, were ideal for fishing with traps or cast nets. Fish traps were of two types ??? the fixed, v-shaped hadra by which fish were guided along a stake fence and finally into a small enclosure where they were harvested at low tide, or the small moveable garghour traps woven from palm fronds, weighted down by stones, and baited to entice fish to enter through a narrow hole. In additional to fish, turtles and dugongs also provided protein.

The latter were staked through the shallows, generally from a canoe ??? but catching them depended ultimately on the hunter’s ability to dive in and grapple physically with his prey. Turtle and bird eggs were collected from well known nesting beaches. The area now known as the UAW was famous for the prowess of its sailors and the sleek lines of their trading vessels, graceful wooden dhows that piles the Indian ocean. Pearling also depended upon dhows, but the craft used were designed as working platforms and places to live for months on end rather than as ocean voyagers.

Although many of the larger vessels were built in India, there was also an indigenous boat building industry using imported woods, especially when pealing was at its climax. The construction of dhows remains very much a living tradition in the emirates with at least as many traditional craft being built now as at the beginning of the last century. At that time Umm al Qaiwain was an import boat building centre. Today Ajman has the largest dhow building yard on the coast, but most of the emirates have boat building yards, enormously atmospheric placed to visit.

Dhows with inboard motors are still used for trade and fishing and specially constructed vessels compete in traditional sailing and rowing races in the UAE. Falconry, once an important way of supplementing the diet of the UAE’s desert inhabitants, is now enjoyed as a traditional pastime. The most popular hunting birds remain the saker falcon and the peregrine falcon, which were traditionally trapped along the coast during their autumn migration, trained, used for hunting, and then released in the spring. Ancestor of today’s racing thoroughbreds the Arabian horse has played a noble part in the history of Arabia.

Excavations at Mleiha, in Sharjah, show that over 2000 years ago, prized stallions, decorated with gold trappings, were buried close to their owners, evidence of their place in local society. The loyal, gentle and stout heart of the Arabian horse has been inspiration of much of the finest Arab poetry. Today, the UAE is one of the world’s top breeding centers for the breed, and is playing a major role in its preservation. The UAE also sponsors special races for Arabian horses in many countries, including Germany. Lacking the speed of the thoroughbred, the Arabian horse is noted for its ability to endure hardship nd to be ridden over long distances. Some endurance races last over a distance of 100 kilometers or more. Riders from the emirates are among the world’s top practitioners of this sport, which tests both man and horse to the limits. 3. 2. 2 Fashion and Lifestyle As in other parts of the parts of the world fashion and lifestyle in UAE has also changed with changing times as it is largely dependent on the material conditions. Income plays major part in the way of living of its local inhabitants. Professional and wealthy business class is positioned at the top of income.

As traveling has become a norm in the period of Globalization lot such professional generally spend their vacations overseas and it has formed a part of their lifestyle in UAE. They go overseas especially to beat the heat of summer and escape from curse of monotony. Academicians, health, media and IT professionals are among these people wealthy people. Another major sector is the service sector. This sector usually comprises of workers from India, Pakistan and Philippines. As 88% of the population in the country live in the urban areas. Lifestyle in UAE also includes rocking nightlife.

Nightlife of Dubai is simply amazing! It features cocktail bars, wine bars, themed bars etc. If you are looking for more excitement then you may go for Irish or British themed pubs. These pubs are immensely popular among visitors, as they lip smacking food along with entertainment. One can enjoy the great lifestyle in Dubai by visiting best restaurants in Dubai. Food in UAE is one of the major highlights in any itinerary to UAE. Nightclubs also play major role in the lifestyle of Dubai. These clubs are known for attracting international DJs, singers and dancers.

Smoking the traditional shisha pipes that use flavored tobaccos like strawberry or apple has also formed an important part of UAE fashion and life style. Shisha is usually enjoyed while sitting at a cafe or restaurant. Although women in UAE generally wear the black abaya, along black robe that covers their cloths and also wears heads craft in the public they are not debarred from wearing other fashionable cloths. The fashion industry in UAE is especially developing in some parts of UAE and especially in Dubai all the latest fashionable brands are available to cater to the needs of the growing tourism industry.

Shopping has also formed an important part of fashion and Life style of UAE. Many people come to Dubai especially for shopping. With growing prosperity playing Golf and Tennis has also become a part of lifestyle in UAE for the upwardly mobile population. 3. 2. 3 Clothes As a rule of thumb for females, dress Western in Dubai, a little more conservative in Abu Dhabi, and cover your skin in Sharjah, bar your face, neck and hands. To give a brief understanding of the clothing used by UAE Nationals, below is detailed information about the dress adopted by both male and female Nationals. . UAE National Dress ??? Male Kandura The Kandura, or dishdash, as it is referred to by the expats, is the long white cloak that male UAE Nationals wear. You will be amazed at how these remain crease free during the day – and they never look dirty. During the winter months, a whole realm of different colours come out, with browns and greys not uncommon. You may have seen pictures of His Highness Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid walking in his iconic colours that are now his trademark. Only the traditional white is seen in summer because it reflects the suns rays.

The men may change their Kandura a number of times in the day to go to different events (work, prayers, dinner etc) and so the men’s clothes remain looking spick and span. A UAE National might have 50 or so Kandura’s in his closet, and have up to 20 of those with the dry cleaners at any one time. A typical kandura would cost between 100 and 200 Dirhams to get tailored. You may see the difference in those Kanduras that are worn by those in Dubai and Abu Dhabi. In Dubai, you can sometimes have Kanduras with collars and cuffs, as opposed to the traditional types.

Guthra The guthra is the headscarf sported by the males. The most popular colours are the plain white, or the red and white checks. These checks are traditional to the Beduin, since the material used was tougher than the other and useful for protection against the elements in the desert. Nowadays, colours come in all types to match with the latest fashion. Also, the way that guthra is worn can define who someone is. Egal The Egal is the black rope that fixes the headscarf in place. In days gone by, these would be used by Bedouin to tie their camel’s feet down during the night while they were travelling.

More of the younger nationals these days do not wear their egal and tie their guthra in a different way on their head. This is called hamdaniya. Ghafiyah The ghafiyah looks exactly like this, but since it is usually under the guthra, it necessarily been seen. It is usually white in colour with designs woven in. Kerkusha a small string like contraption flowing from the neck. This is the kerkusha. It is not always worn, though those who do wear it sometimes are inclined to play around with it. Bisht this is similar to a jacket that is worn on top of the kandura.

Also, the bisht is worn during specical occasions such as Eid or weddings, for example, and also when visiting a Sheikh. Faneela A faneela is like a vest worn under the Kandura. Woozar A woozar is a a piece of white cloth which is tied around the waist under the Kandura. Na-aal These are essentially the sandals that are worn. 2. UAE National Dress ??? Female Abaya The long flowing black gown worn by the UAE National Females is known as the Abaya. Somewhat misunderstood by the west, the abaya is an elegant piece of attire and used to cover the female clothing.

Abayas range from the plain to those with intricate jewel designs. Accordingly, the prices range between 100 and 2500 Dirhams for each Abaya. Ladies will wear western dress, local dress or even indian type clothes, under their abayas. The main reason for wearing the Abaya is concern for modesty, with the most devoted covering their faces, as well as all viewable skin. Shela The Shela is the piece of material used to loosely cover their head. This is sometimes black, especially those used to cover the face.

And since the material is very light it is possible for the lady to see through the material. More recently, the shela is usually designer material, the most popular being Givenchy, Dior and the like and these are sometimes matched with their hangbags to produce a super cool outfit. Hijab The Hijab is not usually worn by UAE Nationals, and more usually by some Muslims from the other GCC countries. The Hijab is a covering of the head, to ensure that the hair is not exposed, usually with one or two pieces of material.

Burqa The Burqa actually represents two items: one, the covering of the head except for a slit for the eyes; the other item is the metallic coloured object used to cover part of the face, and these days is only used by the older generation – this is specific to the UAE. Gishwa The Gishwa is the thin black veil that covers the face of the female. It is just dark enough for you not to be able to make out who is underneath, and just light enough for the female to see through. This makes it easier for the woman to travel around in freedom.

Jelabia Mukhawara this item is the traditional outfit worn by the females, similar to a flowing gown in some great colours. Worn to weddings or special occasions. Gafaaz. Gafaaz is the literal translation of gloves in Arabic. 3. 2. 4 Poetry, Dance, Music and Drama The Emirates enjoys a strong tradition of music and dance, both of which played a vital role in people’s lives. Songs were composed to accompany different tasks, from hauling water at the well, to diving for pearl oysters out in the Gulf. In the latter case a professional song-leader was kept on the pearling dhows whose job it was to rally the men to work through music and song.

The naha’an, as this person was known, would launch into song and all the sailors would join in as they worked. Each song had a rhythm for a particular task and, like the sea-shanties of western sailors; the music became an inspiration for good teamwork. nabati poetry, because the spoken word has always been the superior art form of the tribal people, who lacked the raw materials used elsewhere for more tangible forms of artistic expression. During celebrations singing and dancing also took place and many of the songs and dances, handed down from generation to generation, have survived to the present time.

Young girls would dance by swinging their long black hair and swaying their bodies in time to the strong beat of the music. Men would re-enact battles fought or successful hunting expeditions, often symbolically using sticks, swords or rifles. 3. 3 Demand for travel and tourism 3. 3. 1 Trends The government’s emphasis on developing an economy that is not entirely dependent on oil revenues has led to the implementation of several multi-billion dirham projects in the public as well as the private sector in major cities of the country that have led to attract tourists from around the world.

Travel agents in a number of European countries are promoting the UAE as a sunshine destination, especially in the chilling winter months on that continent when the weather in this region is fairly pleasant. The World Travel and Tourism Council (WTTC) has, in its long-term forecast for the UAE travel and tourism sector potentials, said that earnings from inbound visitors would grow by 7. 2 per cent annually till 2015. The report reassessed the impact of new travel and tourism products and resorts being developed in the UAE which are expected to transform the country’s travel and tourism economy.

These include mega projects in Dubai such as the Palms, the Waterfront, the Marina, Dubailand and Festival City. Encompassing all components of travel and tourism consumption, investment, government spending, and earnings from tourists are forecast to have grown 2. 1 per cent in real terms and total Dh74. 7 billion in 2005. The 10-year (2006-15) annualized growth forecast is now posted at 3. 2 per cent per annum. The spending by inbound international visitors is expected to have totaled Dh6. 4 billion in 2005 and over the next decade it is expected to grow by 7. per cent to Dh15. 8 billion. The ongoing transformation of the tourist industry in the UAE, in particular the spectacular development of hotel infrastructure, is having a direct impact on investment in the sector, and will make the destination able to accommodate a considerably larger number of visitors, the WTTC said, forecasting the number of tourist arrivals to increase to 14 million in 2015. According to statistics released by Visa International, spending by visitors to the UAE during summer increased by 30 per cent to $342 million in 2005, against 2004.

Tourists and business travelers from the UK spent $74 million in the summer months of June, July and August 2005, the largest amount spent by any group. Saudis spent $41 million while visitors from the US were third spending $39 million, followed by Kuwaitis who spent $17 million. Khalid bin Sulayem, director general of Dubai’s Department of Tourism and Commerce Marketing, has said that developments such as Jumeirah’s Madinat Jumairah resort, Mall of the Emirates, the Palm Islands, Burj Dubai, Dubailand, Dubai Festival City, Dubai International City, and Dubai International Financial Centre attracted summer visitors from Europe and the US.

He said that as these projects open, tourism spending in Dubai is expected to increase exponentially. “A number of UK travelers are rating Dubai above destinations like New York for a short break holiday,” he added. The DTCM has launched the biggest ever and high visibility taxi campaign in London for 12 months which utilizes fully liveried cabs transporting passengers through the streets. Nine different holiday themes are being popularized among the UK travelers. They include holidays, hotels, deserts, golfing, beaches, tours and safaris, shopping, water sports, and bird watching. 3. 3. 2 Reasons

The demand for U. A. E. is an ever increasing aspect in the world today. With the growing economy and regular launch of the attractions in the country and the internal competition boiling up it is helping the world population to visit newer more attractive manmade spectrums. According to studies demand raises bringing about a change in the supply side of things as well. The demand in U. A. E is increasing as the economy is growing and there is inflation hence the spending power among people has increased as well. There is increase in demand in the country due to several reasons and has its particular effects: Due to strengthening the infrastructure: the U. A. E. has strengthened its infrastructure in the past few years and come up with many great alternatives and different roads to make it easy for people to commute from one place to another. The new toll system called Salik has eased the traffic congestion on many roads and the new Garhoud bridge, Floating bridge, Emirates Road has also simultaneously increased the ease of traffic flow and traffic congestion. – Investment opportunities have increased: there have been increased opportunities of investment in the U.

A. E. especially in the real estate industry. It is a booming industry lately and many people are buying houses these days or properties as investments. – Population has increased many folds in the last decade: due to a booming tourism industry the population in the U. A. E There has been a significant increase in expatriates entering the country and there has been a bigger rise in the number of tourists visiting the country annually. – Enhancement in lifestyle: although there has been an increased inflation in the past two three years affecting the U. A. E. the kind of lifestyle has increased greatly also over the past few years. People chose to live the extravagant life and chose the best to buy, wear, eat and drink. There have been major improvements in the lifestyle chosen by many in this region. – Popular attractions are being made to attract people from abroad: the country is developing a multi billion dollar entertainment city that is currently under construction. Once it will be done, it will include Dubailand, Sports City, Academic City, Horse Racing arena’s etc. 3. 4 Supply of travel and tourism 3. 4. 1 Transport

Transportation in the United Arab Emirates is mainly possible by means of cars. Cars take up the largest portion of transportation in the UAE, which is followed by buses and then motorcycles. Car In order to own a car, the only requirement is for you to have a UAE residence visa. Brand new cars can cost between Dhs. 40,000 ($ 11,000) and 200,000 ($ 55,000), while second hand cars can start as low as Dhs. 8,000 ($ 2,200). Taxis If you don’t have a car of your own, then the best means of getting round in the UAE is by taxi. Taxis will take you within an emirate or from emirate to emirate, if you have the money.

In the UAE, taxis are only allowed to take you from the emirate their vehicle is registered in, to any destination you wish to go but by law cant bring you back. For example’s sake, a cab registered in Dubai, can take you from Dubai to Sharjah but cant pick you up in Sharjah and bring you to Dubai. It is not like taxis wouldn’t do it, but by law they are not supposed to and if they are caught they will pay a large fine and most likely have they’re taxi taken away from them for sometime. Taxis in the UAE charge by law of the emirate or by meter.

Meter taxis are widely used in Dubai while taxis in the other emirates charge according to the official price issued by the emirate. Buses Dubai, Abu Dhabi and Al Ain have public bus transportation system. In Dubai, it costs between 1 and 4 dirhams to get on the bus and the buses are air-conditioned, with a separate area for women and men. The bus system has been handled by the Dubai Municipality since 1995 and has continuously been improving. The Dubai Municipality has recently announced that it plans to improve inter-emirate bus services, and has already expanded its current public bus system (Gulf News).

Other than public transport, buses are used to transport children to school or workers to work. Motorcycles Motorcycles are very rarely used, as it is very dangerous to ride a motorcycle here in the UAE. Motorcycles are mainly used by carrier services, as motorcycles have no problems getting through traffic jams to insure fast delivery. Individuals who can’t afford a car also use motorcycles, as motorcycles can cost as low as Dhs. 3,000. Other means of transportation are not used, as the temperature in the United Arab Emirates is quite hot all year long.

Similar to the motorcycle, riding a bike isn’t safe and riding on the sidewalks is not allowed. However, the Roads and Transport Authority are implementing a new concept of the metro. The Dubai Metro is the flagship Project of the RTA in terms of: its approximately 15. 5 billion dirhams total investment (inclusive of Project Management fees and utility diversions); state-of-the-art engineering and technological challenges; visibility throughout the City; being an architectural showpiece, and; its direct role in providing social benefits.

In addition it will be a catalyst for improving real estate value, economic development and urban regeneration along its main route and arteries. Dubai Metro will create an additional source of employment opportunities for both local population as well as the region. The aims of the Metro System are to provide an alternative mode of transport to ease congestion, save passengers traveling time, reduce traffic pollution thereby improving environmental quality, improve mobility within the City, provide connection to Dubai International Airport, and deliver modern, comfortable and reliable services to the Metro users.

The Dubai Metro is intended to provide transport coverage and reach to all strategic areas of the City, and develop the network to branch out into the suburbs with future extensions. 3. 4. 2 Attractions There are seven emirates in the U. A. E. and there are tourist attractions in each region. Dubai being the tourist hub of the U. A. E. , provides a lot more tourist attractions such as nightlife, safari, water activities, parks, beaches etc. However the other regions too provide similar activities and attractions for tourists. Here are a few examples of a few attractions that can be visited: Abu Dhabi: ??? Heritage Village ??? Women’s craft center ??? Al Hosn Place or the White Fort ??? Al Ain National Museum ??? Al Ain Zoo and Aquarium ??? Hili Fun City ??? Jabal Hafeet Mountain – Ajman ??? Ajman museum ??? Dhow Yard ??? Mowaihat – Fujairah ??? Bull butting ??? Fujairah Fort ??? Fujairah Museum ??? Wadis ??? Masafi – Dubai ??? Ski Dubai ??? Dubai Festival City ??? Dubai Museum and Zoo ??? Public parks and beaches ??? Wild Wadi and Wonderland ??? Emirates Tower ??? Burj Al Arab – Sharjah ??? Qanat Al Qasba ??? Khor Fakkan – Umm Al Quwain ??? Dreamland Aqua Park ??? Beach resorts ??? Umm Al Quwain Museum Ras Al Khaimah ??? Khatts Springs ??? Dhayah Fort ??? Hajar Mountains 3. 4. 3 Accommodation Accommodation in the UAE is of a very high standard and most of the world’s top hotel chains run five-star hotels in the Emirates, the pieces de resistance being the Emirates Palace Hotel in Abu Dhabi and the Burj al-Arab in Dubai. There are also a number of excellent locally run properties suitable for both tourists and business travelers. Several of the hotels are outstanding examples of modern architecture. Swimming pools, tennis courts and fully equipped health centres are the norm.

Most waterfront hotels have excellent beaches and extensive water sports facilities. If one’s budget does not extend to a five-star hotel, there are alternatives, most also of a high standard. An individual’s choice of hotel will depend on the options on offer by the tour packager or the location and type of facilities that one requires. Those looking for a more affordable accommodation, or tourists and travelers who come on a more regular basis, have a wide variety of choice from 4-star hotels to 3-star hotels. 3. 4. 4 Organizations There are many organizations in the U. A. E. hat are in charge of different activities, events or things that happen on a regular basis. The following is a list of the other government bodies and ministries that are in charge of particular industries, sectors in the U. A. E: – Ministry of Health – Ministry of Interior – Ministry of Planning – Ministry of Economy and Commerce – Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries – Ministry of Finance and Industry – Ministry of Education – Ministry of Interior ??? Naturalization and Residency and Administration – Abu Dhabi Tourism Authority (ADTA) – Ministry of Labour – Ministry of Foreign Affairs – Ministry of Public Works Ministry of Environment and Water – Ministry of Finance, Sharjah – Department of Tourism and Commerce Marketing(DTCM): Established in January 1997, the DTCM has two main areas of responsibility. The first of these includes all the functions of the former Dubai Commerce and Tourism Promotion Board (DCTPB), which had been in existence since 1989 and concentrated on the international promotion of Dubai’s commerce and tourism interests. The DTCM’s second main area of responsibility is as the principal authority for the planning, supervision and development of the tourism sector in the emirate.

Underlining the importance attached to tourism development at the highest level, the DTCM’s Chairman is UAE Vice President and Prime Minister and Ruler of Dubai His Highness Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum. Its Director-General is Khalid A. bin Sulayem. As part of its marketing role, the DTCM plans and implements an integrated programme of international promotions and publicity activities. This programme includes exhibition participation, marketing visits, presentations and road shows, familiarization and assisted visits, advertising brochure production and distribution, media relations and enquiry information services.

In addition to its head office in Dubai, the DTCM has 15 overseas offices. They are located in New York (USA), London (the UK and Ireland), Paris (France), Frankfurt (Germany), Stockholm (Scandinavia), Milan (Italy), Moscow (the Russian Federation, CIS and Baltic States),Sydney (Australia), Johannesburg (South Africa), Mumbai (India), Hong Kong (Far East), Tokyo (Japan),Saudi Arabia(Jeddah and Riyadh) and Zurich (Switzerland and Austria). In assuming its administrative responsibilities within Dubai, the DTCM has now taken over the licensing of hotels, hotel apartments, tour operators, tourist transport companies and travel agents.

Its supervisory role also covers all tourist, archaeological and heritage sites, tourism conferences and exhibitions, the operation of tourist information services and the organization and licensing of tour guides. 4. References 1. en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Dubai 2. http://www. dubaitourism. ae/Newsletter/arrow/_writecontent/_uploads/_users/3/45%20Vol%202/Ladies%20Taxi. JPG 3. http://dubaiforvisitors. com/wp-content/gallery/misc/taxi. jpg 4. http://www. grapeshisha. com/UAE-National-clothing. html 5. http://guide. theemiratesnetwork. com/living/transport. php 6. http://guide. theemiratesnetwork. om/living/dubai/images/the_world/the_world_dubai. jpg 7. http://images. businessweek. com/ss/06/02/sports_stadiums/image/dubai. jpg 8. http://i. pbase. com/u47/zanoni/large/30239001. YoungEmarati. jpg 9. http://www. itravelnet. com/photos/me/uae/dubai/jumeirah/dubai-air-conditioned-bus-stop-seats. jpg 10. http://jewishcontent. com/Static/Binaries/Item/y-CAMEL%20BOYS_1. jpg 11. www. mapsofworld. com/dubai/demographics-of-dubai. html 12. http://www. motherjones. com/commentary/columns/2005/07/dubai_01_598x533. jpg 13. http://www. planetware. com/tourist-attractions/united-arab-emirates-uae. tm 14. http://www. skidubai. com/sd/photos/ski_dubai_toboganning. jpg 15. http://www. uaelinks. com/dir/uae-ministries 16. UAE year book 2003, 2007 (editors and contributors: Ibrahim Al Abed, Paula Vine, Gabrielle Warnock, Peter Heyller, Peter Vine, Daniel Potts, Simon Aspinall, Andy Vine. ) 17. www. ameinfo. com/united_arab_emirates_climate 18. www. asiarooms. com/travel-guide/united-arab-emirates/culture-of-uae/uae-religions 19. www. globalsecurity. org/military/world/gulf/uae-religion 20. www. visit-dubai-city. com/dubai-climate. html 5. Appendix [pic] [pic] [pic] [pic]

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