Where in the world do people live and why? * When geographers study population, we explain population traits across space. * Demography is the study of population * The US has an average of 81 people per square mile * This is misleading because the amount of population isn’t constant across an entire country (Nebraska vs..
NYC) * 98% of Egypt population lives in 3% of the land Physiologic Population Density * A countries physiologic (farmlands) density is greater than the arithmetic (average)density * India has much more arable land than China Population Distribution Population isn’t evenly distributed- 1/3 of the world population lives in china * Dot maps are often used to map population * Overpopulation- the status of not Just the total number of people on Earth, but also the relationship between the number of people and the availability of resources.
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World Population Distribution and Density * Nearly two-thirds of the world’s population live in 4 main regions East Asia * The most populated region is China and the surrounding area * One-fifth of world population ??Five-sixths live in China alone South Asia * The second most is in India and the surrounding areas The Himalayas to the north and the desert to the west confine the population into this area * One-fifth of world population ??Three-fourths live in India Europe * The area between Ireland and Great Britain is greatly populated * ‘dense’ populations are sometimes around physical barriers (mountains) * Many Europeans live in urban centers
You have to take immigration and emigration into account * Doubling rate has shortened up twine sass’s and sass’s * The world is still producing more than it kills, but the rate is more slowed and way less dramatic Population Growth at The Regional and National Scales * Different places experience different population changes * Disease can hinder a places population rise * In places with traditional men and women roles, the population rate is higher * Some South American countries are below the average rate * Cultural traditions influence rates of population growth * The more urbanize countries are, the lower the populations natural increase.
Population Growth at the Local Scale * India started controlling the population before the ‘population bomb’, when everyone started panicking * Indian government began having a forced sterilization of any man with 3 or more children * This practice eventually died out * In 2004 a state in India began trading gun licenses for sterilization The Demographic Transition * Poorer countries tend to have a higher population rate * With the industrial revolution came longer life expectancies, and higher rates During the bubonic plague, death rates exceeded birth rates * Famines limit population growth The 2nd agricultural revolution upped the rates * In urban settings women delayed child- birth to go to school, work, etc Future Population Growth * People predict that the population will stabilize eventually- (300 years? ) * Predictions like this don’t work because people can predict chance- famine, illness, giant earth quake, etc. * Stationary Population Level: the world reaching its carrying capacity. Why Does Population Composition Matter? * Maps often don’t show male/ female ratios and ages * Very important to the population rates * A population pyramid shows the male/ female ratios The youngest age groups have the largest share of the pyramid and it gets less and less as a person ages.
How Does the Geography of Health Influence Population Dynamics? Intent Mortar * MIR reflects a countries population * Infants and children often die from improper births and poor hygiene * Lowest among large populations: Japan 3/1000 * Race and ethnicity change their MIR * US has the 2nd highest newborn death rate in the world * 99% of newborn deaths occur in the poorer countries of the world rate- (CB) total number of live births per every 1000 people per year. Child Mortality * The child mortality rate remains high in places like Africa and Asia * Crude birth * In some countries, one in five children die between their first and fifth birthdays. This is a really bad record for the 21st Century * Crude death rate- (CDR) total number of deaths per every 1000 people per year. Life Expectancy * Women outlive men by 4 years- Europe, 3 years – Africa, 6 years – N. America, 7 years – S. America, 14 years – Russia * AIDS causes Africa to be below 40 in some places * Russian’s life expectancy for men is 58 years and for females is 72 years. * Life expectancy- the average number of years a newborn can expect to live at current mortality levels. Influence on Health and Well-Being * Environmental factors change the life expectancy by changing the disease posed * There are many kinds of diseases: infectious, chronic, genetic, etc. * An endemic is when a disease overtakes one small region.
Infectious Diseases * Vectored- one animal carries it from person to person (malaria) * Malaria has killed more than any other disease in human history * Non-vectored- transmitted directly from person to person (cold) Chronic and Genetic Diseases Chronic disease are usually among the higher age levels and consist of heart problems, cancer and strokes * Some disease aren’t nearly as prominent now as 100 years ago AIDS * Main problem- Africa (68%) * Symptoms take a while to show up, so people unwillingly spread it to others * 15 million AIDS orphans currently * Many children (often girls) are pulled out of school to help take care of relatives with AIDS * 99% of new cases within the last decade have been in Lad’s. AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) has been the most lethal epidemic in years. How Do Governments Affect Population Change Government oaten alters ten populations Walt tongs like laws (canal) Ana incentives (tax breaks) * A providence in Russia holds ‘conception day * China’s one child plan reduced the rate, but also increased abortion and female infanticide Limitations * Sweden gave tax cuts, leaves, and more flexible schedules to new parent’s.