Raven (2008) describes them as particulate matter, nitrogen sides, sulfur oxides, hydrocarbons, ozone, air toxic, and carbon oxides. Particulate matter can come from dust, soil, soot, and asbestos Nitrogen oxides come from gases that are produced by chemical interactions between atmospheric nitrogen and oxygen. Sulfur oxides come from chemical interactions between sulfur and oxygen. Hydrocarbons come from chemical interactions between hydrogen and carbon. Ozone comes in two forms; (1) oxygen’s reaction with UP radiation in the stratosphere and, (2) oxygen reaction in the troposphere what creates smog.
Air toxic can be radioactive absences, fluorides, and hydrochloric acid, and carbon oxides are carbon monoxide and dioxide. Causes of Air Pollution Chemicals, human sources, and natural sources contribute to air pollution. Air pollution can be traced all the way back to Ancient Roman times. “Every day, the average person inhales about 20,000 liters of air. Every time we breathe, we risk inhaling dangerous chemicals that have found their way into the air. ” (Caroline, David, Michael, Mindy, Neil, and Visas, 1999, The Environment: A Global Challenge. Air Pollution).
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Air pollution occurs in the atmosphere and can move easily from one location to another, it is a global concern. Air pollution is a problem both outdoors and inside homes. Chemicals There are seven main types of air pollutants according to a regulatory perspective. These are: particulate matter, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, carbon oxides, hydrocarbons, ozone, and air toxic. Particulate matter is made of thousands of solid and liquid particles hanging in the atmosphere. Solid particulate matter is commonly known as dust; whereas as liquid particulate matter is known as mist.
Particulate matter includes the following Laotians: soot, lead, asbestos, soil particles, sea salt, and sulfuric acid droplets. Nitrogen oxides are gases produced as a result of interaction between nitrogen and oxygen involves a supply of energy such as combustion of fuels resulting in high temperatures. Suffer oxides are gases. These gases are a result of a chemical interaction between sulfur and oxygen. When combined with water, the result is sulfuric acid. Carbon oxides consist of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide.
Carbon monoxide has no color, smell, or taste and is second as an air pollutant only to carbon dioxide. Carbon oxide is also does not have color, smell, or taste and is a greenhouse gas. Hydrocarbons consist are a varied collection of organic compounds including hydrogen and carbon. Small hydrogen molecules are gaseous at room temperature. Hydrocarbons include methane (colorless and odorless gas principally included in natural gas), benzene (which is a liquid at room temperature), and paraffin (which is a solid at room temperature).
Ozone is a form of oxygen that is a pollutant in one area of the atmosphere but essential in another area of the atmosphere. Hazardous air pollutants (HAPS) consist of undress of other air pollutants such as chlorine, lead, hydrochloric acid, formaldehyde, radioactive substances, and fluorides. Humans Many chemicals that cause air pollution exist naturally in our world. These chemicals are harmful in both their natural form; however, become even more harmful when burned by humans for fuel, heat, or electricity.
The two main causes of air pollutants in urban areas are transportation and fuel combustion from stationary sources. The stationary sources are heating and cooling for buildings and coal-burning power plants. Vehicles such as cars, rains, heavy-duty trucks, and airplanes, produce high amounts of carbon dioxide while fuel combustion produces high amounts of sulfur dioxide. Chlorofluorocarbons (CIFS) “are man-made compounds that were originally developed in 1 930 as a safer alternative to the refrigerants then in use such as sulfur dioxide and ammonia. ” (The Environmental Agency. (2009).
CIFS (Chlorofluorocarbons)) Use of CIFS has declined dramatically since the introduction of the Montreal Protocol. CIFS were used in refrigeration, foam insulation, upholstery foam, and cleaning solvents. These chemicals are little liquids that evaporate easily into the atmosphere. Natural Sources There are some natural sources of air pollution. These are a result of naturally occurring sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, ozone, particulate matter, and volatile organic compounds (Voss). (ARCTIC, 2004, Natural Air Pollution) Sulfur dioxide is released during volcanic explosions, forest fires, and biological decay.
Volcanoes, lightning strikes, oceans, and biological decay produce nitrogen oxide. Ozone is produced near ground level as a result of chemical reaction to sunlight. Particulate matter comes from volcanoes and dust storms. Naturally occurring particulate matter events can account for a large amount of matter being introduced into the atmosphere in a very short time frame. “It is not unknown for Sahara dust to be deposited in the UK after being blown thousands of miles. ” (ARCTIC, 2004, Natural Air Pollution) Voss are an organic compound that dissolves effortlessly at room temperature.
Voss are considered organic because the molecular structure includes carbon. This compound does not have any color, smell, or taste. Voss are created in nature by trees and plants. One very common naturally occurring VOCE is called suppression. Suppression is produced by plant life. Another naturally occurring VOCE is pollen. Pollen comes from many types of plants, grasses, and trees. Effects of Air Pollution on Humans Robert Robber said ‘There is so much pollution in our air now that if it weren’t for our lungs there would be nowhere to put it all. The pollutants in our air may harm our population and natural resources in ways that are so subtle or slow that the effects may not have been identified yet. Most people experience the low levels of air pollution. The pollutants interact with one another in the body and with physical factors such as nutrition, stress, alcohol, cigarette smoking and common medicines, which can lead to long- term health issues in the human bodies. Science Daily (2009) reported that the American Lung Association found that 6 out of 10 Americans – 186. 1 million people – live in areas where air pollution levels endanger lives.
The American Lung Association’s State of the Air report states that there has been significant progress against air pollution in many areas of our country, but that there are still many cities that are still overwhelmed by air pollution. Stephen Nolan, the Board Chair of the American Lung Association stated in he report that air pollution is a major threat to human health. He said “60% Of Americans are breathing air dirty enough to send people to the emergency room,” and that air pollution is changing the way a child’s lungs develop. Unhealthy ozone levels are also causing health problems.
In 2009 the Science Daily reported that when inhaled, ozone irritates the lungs. The health effects of breathing ozone pollution can be immediate. Ozone can cause wheezing and coughing, and asthma attaches and can even shorten lives. Charles Cocoon of the American Lung Association report “more than 175 million Americans live with unhealthy smog levels and that the new ozone standards are not strong enough to protect human health. ” Raven (2008) defines particle pollution or particulate matter as dust or soil particles, soot, lead, asbestos, sea salt, and sulfuric acid droplets.
Particulate matter can contain materials, such as heavy metals, asbestos or organic chemicals that can have a toxic or carcinogenic effect on the body. These toxins, upon contacting or being absorbed into the body can get lodged deep in the lungs, and have a range of effects on the body. Science Daily (2009) reports that breathing in article pollution can increase the risk of early death, heart attacks, strokes and emergency room visits for asthma ad cardiovascular disease. The severity and immediate health impacts of particle pollution has been redefined in recent years.
The new data now show that women in their ass may be particularly threatened by air pollution and that diesel truck drivers and dockworkers who are forced to breathe exhaust on the job may face a greater risk of developing lung cancer or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In 2009 the Science Daily reported that California researchers have tripled their estimate of the number of people that particle pollution kills each year in their State. Which Risks Are Of Greatest Concern (Chart retrieved from: http://www. EPA. Gob/TNT/tat/3_90_022. HTML)[epic] Effects of Air Pollution on Ecosystems The environmental impacts and processes that lead to the pollution of our environment may be direct and simple; however, they may also be indirect and complex. The Columbia Encyclopedia (2007) reports that the pollution of the Great Barrier Reef by fertilizers used by Queensland sugar-cane growers has long-term impacts on reef ecology and the value of the reef to people; at resent, these are uncertain. Science Daily (2009) reported that the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) found that greenhouse gases contributed to air pollution that endangers the public health.
The report confirmed that greenhouse gas pollution is an ongoing, serious problem. Science shows that the concentration of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, hydro fluorocarbons, per fluorocarbons, and sulfur hexafluoride are at unprecedented levels as a result of human emissions, and that the high levels could be the cause of some of the changes in our climate and increase in average temperatures. Raven (2008) explains that there are two main sources of primary air pollutants: mobile sources and stationary sources.
Mobile sources include automobiles and trucks, which generate large quantities of nitrogen oxides, carbon oxides, particulate matter and hydrocarbons. Outboard motors and jet skis cause air pollution and water pollution. Stationary sources include electric power plants and other industrial facilities, and they emit sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons and carbon oxides. The pesticides that farmers use on their crops also harm the environment. Persistent organic pollutants cannot be broke down. The end up in the soil and vegetation, and can poison insects and animals, and contaminate our water supply.
Solutions to Air Pollutions There are many disastrous effects that need to be retrained when it comes to air pollution. In order to achieve this, governments, scientists and environmentalists are testing a variety of methods designed for reducing air pollution today. Two main types of pollution control include input control and output control. Input controls are usually more effective than output controls. Output controls are also more expensive, making them less desirable to tax areas and polluting industries. Input control involves preventing a problem before it occurs, or at least limiting the effects the process will produce.
There are five major input control methods that exist. People may try to restrict population growth, use less energy, improve energy efficiency, reduce waste, and move to non-polluting renewable forms of energy production. In addition, automobile-produced pollution can be decreased with extremely beneficial results. Output control is the opposite method of input control. It tries to find and fix the problems caused by air pollution. This typically means cleaning up an area that has been already damaged by air pollution. Existing air pollution control efforts are not all very effective.
In wealthier countries, industries are often able to shift to methods that decrease air pollution. For example, in the Ignited States, air pollution control laws have been successful in stopping air pollution levels from increasing. On the other hand, in developing countries as well as countries where pollution is strictly regulated, much more work needs to be done. When we think about air pollution, we habitually think about smog, acid main, and other forms of outdoor air pollution. But what most of us do not consider is that air pollution can also exist inside homes and buildings.
Every year, chemical substances present in the air within buildings affect the health of many people. A great deal of research on pollution is being carried out at laboratories and universities. The goals of the research are to find solutions and to educate the public about the problem. There are various types of air pollutions, the effects that they have on people, and what is being or not being done to correct the problem. The US Department of Energy through the Sensitivity of Berkeley (2009) stated that air is the Ocean we breathe. Air supplies us with oxygen, which is essential for our bodies to live.
Air is 99. 9% nitrogen, oxygen, water vapor and inert gases, however, our human activities can release substances into the air, some of which can cause problems for humans, plants, and animals. There are several main types of pollution and well-known effects of pollution, which are commonly discussed. These include smog, acid rain, the greenhouse effect, and holes in the ozone layer. Each of these problems has serious repercussions for our health and safety as well as or the whole environment. One type of air pollution is the release of particles into the air from burning fuel for energy.
Diesel smoke is an example of this particulate substance. The USED/LB (2009) reported that the particles causing pollution are very small pieces of matter measuring about 2. 5 microns or about . 0001 inches. This type of pollution is sometimes referred to as black carbon pollution. The exhaust from burning fuels in automobiles, homes, and industries is a major source of pollution in the air. The report also states that some authorities believe that even the burning of wood and Harold in fireplaces and barbeques can release significant quantities of soot into the air.
Another type of pollution is the release of noxious gases, such as sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and chemical vapors. These can take part in further chemical reactions once they are in the atmosphere, forming smog and acid rain. We need to consider air pollution inside our schools, workplaces and homes. A variety of these pollutants can be created by indoor activities such as cooking and smoking. In the Lignite States, according to the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, we spend about 0% to 90% of our time inside buildings; hence our exposure to harmful indoor pollutants can be serious.
It is very significant to reflect on both indoor and outdoor air pollution. We all need to consider that is it potential to live in a clean environment. Harmful air pollutants are linked to tens of thousands of deaths each year. Conclusion Air pollution is an ongoing problem that we face here on Earth. We have made great strides to identify the activities that are causing pollution. We have performed extensive research to create new technology and machinery to reduce emissions that lead to a green house effect and are educating our tizzies on how to reduce the amount of pollution they emit.