Questionnaires: Completed more quickly and less expensively than interviews. More accurate. Theory: A set of principles to understanding how a number of separate ideas are related. Descriptive research methods: Research methods that yield descriptions of behaviors rather than casual explanations Naturalistic observation: A research method in which researchers observe and record behaviors without trying to influence or control it.
Case study: An in-depth study of one or a few participants Consisting of information gathered through observation, interviews, and perhaps psychological testing Survey: A method used/ interviews/questionnaires gathering information about attitudes, beliefs, experiences, or behaviors of a group of people DVD- if done correctly can provide highly accurate information about larger group Limitation of survey: inaccurate information because of faulty memory or a desire to please interviewer.
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Population: The entire group of interest to researchers to which they wish to generalize their findings; the group from which a sample is selected Sample: The portion of any population that is selected for study and from which generalization are made about the larger population Representative sample: A sample of participants selected from a larger population in such a way that important subgroups within the population are included in the sample in the same proportions as they are found in the larger population Correlation method: A research method used to establish the relationship between two characteristics – events, or behaviors Correlation coefficient: A umbilical value that indicates the strength of the relationships between two variables; ranges from +1. 00(perfect positive correlation) to -1. 00(percent negative) Two types of variables Variables: Independent variable: Is the factor that is manipulated( treatment viruses no treatment) Dependent variable: is the factor measured at the end of the experiment two types of groups experimental group: consists of participants who are exposed to the treatment control group: consists of participants who are exposed to the same environment as the experimental group, except for treatment Random assignment: is the control for selection bias.
DVD—> only research method that has the ability to reveal cause-effect relationship employs a high degree of control to rule out other sources of influence dismay: exportability issues -cannot be performed in many areas of psychology due to ethical issues Structuralism: tried to break conscious experience down to its basic elements. Introspection was used as a primary technique Functionalism: Studied the fiction, or purpose of consciousness Gestalt Psych: Emphasizes that individuals perceive objects and patterns as whole unit, and that the perceived whole is more than Just the sum of its parts Behaviorism: Rejects the study of consciousness in favor of observable behavior.
Behavior is determined by the factors in the environment Cognitive psychology: Focuses on mental processes such as memory, reasoning, engage, and perception. Humanistic psychology: Focuses on the uniqueness of human beings and their capacity for choice, growth and psychological health Psychologists: Emphasis that unconscious mental forces are the key determination of behavior Personality three components: old(pleasure principle, seeks immediate pleasure, avoids pain, and seeks immediate gratification) is present at birth, inherited and totally unconscious Ego is rational, largely conscious, and operates on the reality principle(tries to satisfy the id without violating moral values
Superego: contains mainly unconscious memories of behaviors that have been either punished ( he conscious) or rewarded ( the ego ideal) Sexual stages of development: Oral: Age Range: Birth to 1 Year Pleasure is derived from stimulation of Mouth Anal: Age Range: 1 to 3 years Pleasure from expelling and withholding feces. Phallic: Age Range: 3 to 6 Years Pleasure from genitals. Peptide complex refers to a child’s sexual attraction to opposite-seep arena and hostility to same-sex parent Latency Period: Age Range: 6 to Puberty Sexual instinct repressed and sublimated in school and play activities Genital stage: Age Range: Puberty to Death Focus of sexual energy shifts to the opposite-sex peers with whom a person establishes a mature sexual relationship Observation, interviews, and rating scales have been used to measure personality.