These characteristics can bring new changes to the organization’s culture. Transformational leaders are not only reliable, but they also build commitment from followers which results in a sense of shared purpose (Haddock & Post, 1991). This essay will evaluate the three ways used by a transformational leader to influence subordinates performance by giving motivation, trust/empowerment and being charismatic based on research that have been conducted.
Transformational leadership influences subordinate performance by motivation and support for innovation. A study by Tracey & Honking (1998), appealing to the higher Ideals and moral values of the followers are the key reminisces of a transformational leader. Though, Burns (1978) has a different assumption that transformational leadership is a two-end receiving concept whereby the leader and followers motivate each other to exceed expectations. This theory by Burns was reinforced by Hung,k et. L (2010) findings by showing that transformational leadership has a positive approach on managers using the motivational model to improve work performance. Bass (1985) further argued that with encouragement to think critically in their job, subordinates will take the challenge as a motivation to strive and this increases job satisfaction. In addition, motivation from transformational leaders will result in subordinates being more innovative even when low on organization-based self-esteem (OBESE) (Pierce, Gardner, Cummings , 1989).
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This theory is consistent with the research done by Barreling. Et. Al (1996) which concluded that transformational leadership positively relates to increasing both task performance and innovation. The act of motivation given by the leaders to employees with low Organizational based self-esteem will allow them to be intellectual as well as engage in idea hampering. This theory is supported by (Pillar, Cherished & Williams, 1999) which states a positive correlation between transformational leaders and employees who are low in OBESE.
Not only that, transformational leaders improve performance of the followers using motivation to act on their own behalf for the need of others in relation to their development needs (Popper & Kaki, 1994). Hence, transformational leaders use motivation and support for innovation to increase the subordinates’ performance by instilling optimism and confidence in them. Besides that, another method used by transformational leaders to influence subordinates is by instilling trust In employees with a sense of empowerment as well.
Literature regards trusts as a fundamental feature in the relationship between transformational leaders and their subordinates (Gillespie & Mann, 2000). Previous research have confirmed that trust in superiors can influence job performance and job satisfaction of the employee (Geris,Vaughn, and Petit,2003 as cited by Chain, 2005). Though transformational leaders that do not instill trust or fail to influence with subordinates can affect job satisfaction ND performance as stated by Cunningham and MacGregor (2000).
Furthermore, a transformational leader uses trust behaviors that empowers subordinates and this strengthens their motivation (Mass & Cooke, 2000). Empowering subordinates is the act that allows them to make decisions on their own with the vision that has been created by the leader itself. (Eden, 1992). This result is consistent with the theory by Lawyer (1994) that transformational leaders create an environment for subordinates to respond in a flexible and quick manner to the change in organizational demands.
Transformation leaders can also provide emotional support to subordinates who are stressed or by giving chances for new job assignment experiences as part of empowerment. In addition, subordinates can be empowered by inspiring words and positive encouragement from their leaders who act as role models (Bass, 1985). Therefore based on Jones (2004), the key strength of a transformational leader is by empowering subordinates. Though, this theory by Jones (2004) is contradicted by Fee (2001 ) believes that increasing the self-worth and capability in their team members are more essential.