Training Need Analysis Assignment

Training Need Analysis Assignment Words: 9596

My sincere gratitude to Tata Motors for providing me with an opportunity to work with Tata Motors and SIADS and giving necessary directions on doing this project to the best of my abilities. I am highly indebted to Mr. S. B. BHAGWAT. , Director (SIADS) and company project guide, who has provided me with the necessary information and also for the support extended out to me in the completion of this report and his valuable suggestion and comments on bringing out this report in the best way possible. I also thank Ms. Priyanka Chibber, Ms.

Sukhwinder Arora, LPU, PUNJAB, who has sincerely supported me with the valuable insights into the completion of this project. I am grateful to all faculty members of LIM, LPU, PUNJAB and my friends and family who have helped me in the successful completion of this project. PRIYANKA SHARDA PREFACE Doing training was really an opportunity before me and when I could convert my theoretical knowledge into practical and of real world type. Fortunately, the company I got is a true follower of the various principles of management and also is the largest company in its segment of the industry.

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The working environment that I was being provided was extraordinary and helped me a lot in delivering my work properly and with full potency of mine. I did my summer training in the HR department of TATA MOTORS, SIADS where I found all the professionals are very much committed to their work as well as they were all professionals enough. This helped me a lot in getting a good deal of exposure. As I had to consult the faculty, students, and other staff members so I felt myself, in the beginning, in a bit problem.

But the cooperation of every one at the work induced confidence in me to deal with my problems. But the cooperation of my superiors at the work induced confidence in me to deal with my problems whenever they came. After few days, I was able enough to go in the survey confidently and do the given work with proficiency and acumen. The work was to indentify the training need analysis at SIADS. Since I had to complete my project within a limited time frame, this made me experience the actual stress of the workplace.

The way the boss supported me and his other subordinates was a good example of coordination and good manager. This shows that in the corporate world the superior officer should not only take care of the target fulfilled but also the behavioral aspect of the subordinates. ? TABLE OF CONTENT TOPICPg. NO. 1. ABSTRACT 6 2. COMPANY PROFILE8-16 3. INTRODUCTION TO THE TOPIC18-29 4. REVIEW OF LITERATURE31-43 5. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY45-49 6. DATA INTERPRETATION51-58 7. FINDINGS AND SUGGESTIONS59 8. CONSLUSION60 ABSTRACT

The present study was undertaken to understand the details of the training need analysis at SIADS. As there was no training modules given to them so it was our project to identify the training needs, design the modules, implement it, and evaluate it. To find the training needs of faculty and students, I had to conduct a survey to know their needs for training and it was done through interview and questionnaire. To find the training given to various other institute of same level, I also visited the nearby same level institutes.

During my training, I had to find out the training needs at SIADS. I passed through various stages of problems and difficulties to accomplish the task of project work but it was a privilege for me to take this opportunity and challenging work to study and observe different level of people. TATA MOTORS recognizes that leadership is essential for survival in competitive environment; Customer’s satisfaction, like quality is a journey and not a destination. It is essential that everyone in the company should be properly trained and developed..

While regular training is necessary for ensuring prosperity of the company, it must also be recognized that ability of the company to satisfy its employees would depend on its ability to continuously improvement of individuals.. COMPANY PROFILE Tata Motors Limited is India’s largest automobile company, with consolidated revenues of Rs. 92,519 crores (USD 20 billion) in 2009-10. It is the leader in commercial vehicles in each segment, and among the top three in passenger vehicles with winning products in the compact, midsize car and utility vehicle segments.

The company is the world’s fourth largest truck manufacturer, and the world’s second largest bus manufacturer. The company’s 24,000 employees are guided by the vision to be “best in the manner in which we operate, best in the products we deliver, and best in our value system and ethics. ” Established in 1945, Tata Motors’ presence indeed cuts across the length and breadth of India. Over 5. 9 million Tata vehicles ply on Indian roads, since the first rolled out in 1954. The company’s manufacturing base in India is spread across Jamshedpur (Jharkhand), Pune (Maharashtra), Lucknow (Uttar Pradesh), Pantnagar (Uttarakhand) and Dharwad (Karnataka).

Following a strategic alliance with Fiat in 2005, it has set up an industrial joint venture with Fiat Group Automobiles at Ranjangaon (Maharashtra) to produce both Fiat and Tata cars and Fiat powertrains. The company is establishing a new plant at Sanand (Gujarat). The company’s dealership, sales, services and spare parts network comprises over 3500 touch points; Tata Motors also distributes and markets Fiat branded cars in India. Tata Motors, the first company from India’s engineering sector to be listed in the New York Stock Exchange (September 2004), has also emerged as an international automobile company.

Through subsidiaries and associate companies, Tata Motors has operations in the UK, South Korea, Thailand and Spain. Among them is Jaguar Land Rover, a business comprising the two iconic British brands that was acquired in 2008. In 2004, it acquired the Daewoo Commercial Vehicles Company, South Korea’s second largest truck maker. The rechristened Tata Daewoo Commercial Vehicles Company has launched several new products in the Korean market, while also exporting these products to several international markets.

Today two-thirds of heavy commercial vehicle exports out of South Korea are from Tata Daewoo. In 2005, Tata Motors acquired a 21% stake in Hispano Carrocera, a reputed Spanish bus and coach manufacturer, and subsequently the remaining stake in 2009. Hispano’s presence is being expanded in other markets. In 2006, Tata Motors formed a joint venture with the Brazil-based Marcopolo, a global leader in body-building for buses and coaches to manufacture fully-built buses and coaches for India and select international markets.

In 2006, Tata Motors entered into joint venture with Thonburi Automotive Assembly Plant Company of Thailand to manufacture and market the company’s pickup vehicles in Thailand. The new plant of Tata Motors (Thailand) has begun production of the Xenon pickup truck, with the Xenon having been launched in Thailand in 2008. Tata Motors is also expanding its international footprint, established through exports since 1961. The company’s commercial and passenger vehicles are already being marketed in several countries in Europe, Africa, the Middle East, South East Asia, South Asia and South America.

It has franchisee/joint venture assembly operations in Kenya, Bangladesh, Ukraine, Russia, Senegal and South Africa. The foundation of the company’s growth over the last 50 years is a deep understanding of economic stimuli and customer needs, and the ability to translate them into customer-desired offerings through leading edge R&D. With over 3,000 engineers and scientists, the company’s Engineering Research Centre, established in 1966, has enabled pioneering technologies and products. The company today has R centres in Pune, Jamshedpur, Lucknow, Dharwad in India, and in South Korea, Spain, and the UK.

It was Tata Motors, which developed the first indigenously developed Light Commercial Vehicle, India’s first Sports Utility Vehicle and, in 1998, the Tata Indica, India’s first fully indigenous passenger car. Within two years of launch, Tata Indica became India’s largest selling car in its segment. In 2005, Tata Motors created a new segment by launching the Tata Ace, India’s first indigenously developed mini-truck. In January 2008, Tata Motors unveiled its People’s Car, the Tata Nano, which India and the world have been looking forward to.

The Tata Nano has been subsequently launched, as planned, in India in March 2009. A development, which signifies a first for the global automobile industry, the Nano brings the comfort and safety of a car within the reach of thousands of families. The standard version has been priced at Rs. 100,000 (excluding VAT and transportation cost). Designed with a family in mind, it has a roomy passenger compartment with generous leg space and head room. It can comfortably seat four persons. Its mono-volume design will set a new benchmark among small cars.

Its safety performance exceeds regulatory requirements in India. Its tailpipe emission performance too exceeds regulatory requirements. In terms of overall pollutants, it has a lower pollution level than two-wheelers being manufactured in India today. The lean design strategy has helped minimise weight, which helps maximise performance per unit of energy consumed and delivers high fuel efficiency. The high fuel efficiency also ensures that the car has low carbon dioxide emissions, thereby providing the twin benefits of an affordable transportation solution with a low carbon footprint.

In May 2009, Tata Motors introduced ushered in a new era in the Indian automobile industry, in keeping with its pioneering tradition, by unveiling its new range of world standard trucks called Prima. In their power, speed, carrying capacity, operating economy and trims, they will introduce new benchmarks in India and match the best in the world in performance at a lower life-cycle cost. Tata Motors is equally focussed on environment-friendly technologies in emissions and alternative fuels. . It has developed electric and hybrid vehicles both for personal and public transportation.

It has also been implementing several environment-friendly technologies in manufacturing processes, significantly enhancing resource conservation Through its subsidiaries, the company is engaged in engineering and automotive solutions, construction equipment manufacturing, automotive vehicle components manufacturing and supply chain activities, machine tools and factory automation solutions, high-precision tooling and plastic and electronic components for automotive and computer applications, and automotive retailing and service operations.

Tata Motors is committed to improving the quality of life of communities by working on four thrust areas – employability, education, health and environment. The activities touch the lives of more than a million citizens. The company’s support on education and employability is focused on youth and women. They range from schools to technical education institutes to actual facilitation of income generation. In health, our intervention is in both preventive and curative health care.

The goal of environment protection is achieved through tree plantation, conserving water and creating new water bodies and, last but not the least, by introducing appropriate technologies in our vehicles and operations for constantly enhancing environment care. With the foundation of its rich heritage, Tata Motors today is etching a refulgent future. VALUES The Tata Group has always sought to be a value-driven organisation. These values continue to direct the group’s growth and businesses.

The five core Tata values underpinning the way we do business are: • Integrity – we must conduct our business fairly, with honesty and transparency. Everything we do must stand the test of public scrutiny. • Understanding – we must be caring, show respect, compassion and humanity for our colleagues and customers around the world and always work for the benefit of India. • Excellence – we must constantly strive to achieve the highest possible standards in our day-to-day work and in the quality of the goods and services we provide. Unity – we must work cohesively with our colleagues across the group and with our customers and partners around the world, building strong relationships based on tolerance, understanding and mutual cooperation. • Responsibility – we must continue to be responsible, sensitive to the countries, communities and environments in which we work, always ensuring that what comes from the people goes back to the people many times over. Processes Followed In Tata Motors 1)Research & Development

Research provides the much-needed inspiration for the birth of new ideas, which in turn breathes new life into products. World-class automotive research and development are key factors that contribute to the leadership of the Company. Tata Motors believes in technology for tomorrow. Its products stand testimony to this. The annual expenditure on R&D is approximately 1. 3% of annual turnover. They have also set up two in-house Engineering Research Centres that house India’s only Certified Crash Test Facility 1. 1) Engineering Research Centre (ERC) :

The Research Centre at Jamshedpur regularly upgrades components and aggregates. A well-equipped torture track enables rigorous and exhaustive testing of modifications before they are used as regular fitments. The Engineering Research Centre in Pune was setup in 1966 and is among the finest in the country. It has been honoured with two prestigious awards – ‘The DSIR National Award for R&D Effort in Industry – 1999’ and ‘National Award for Successful Commercialisation of Indigenous Technology by an Industrial Concern – 2000. ‘ 2) Social Obligations 2. 1) Green Matters

Tata Motors, a Company that cares about the future. Tata motor ‘s products are environmentally sound in a variety of ways. These include reducing hazardous materials in vehicle components, developing extended life lubricants, fluids and using ozone-friendly refrigerants. Tata Motors has been making conscious effort in the implementation of several environmentally sensitive technologies in manufacturing processes. The Company uses some of the world’s most advanced equipment for emission check and control. Tata Motors concern is manifested by a dual approach – . 1. 1Reduction of environmental pollution • First Indian Company to introduce vehicles with Euro I and Euro II norms well ahead of the mandated dates • Tata Motors’ joint venture with Cummins Engine Company, USA, in 1992, was a pioneering effort to introduce emission control technology for India upgraded the performance of its entire range of four and six cylinder engines with the help of world-renowned engine consultants like Ricardo and AVL • It has manufactured CNG version of buses and followed it up with a CNG version of its passenger car, the Indica. . 1. 2 Restoration of ecological balance. • Effluent treatment facilities in its plants, to avoid release of polluted water into the ecosystem • Tree plantation programmes involving villagers and Tata Motors employees Their endeavors towards environment protection are soil and water conservation programmes and extensive tree plantation drives. Tata Motors is committed to restoring and preserving environmental balance, by reducing waste and pollutants, conserving resources and recycling materials. 2. 2Community Development

The Company encourages economic independence through self-initiated cottage industries and contributing to community and social forestry, road construction, rural health, education, water supply and family planning. 2. 3Health & Sanitation Mobile health service staff provide preventive and curative health services under the “Health For All” programme. They train village health workers in conducting the same. Safe drinking water facilities are provided to ensure health of the villagers. 2. 4 Employment Generation

Tata Motors encourages self-sufficiency with the aim to improving the confidence, morale and lives of its employees and their dependents. Employees’ relatives at Pune have been encouraged to form various industrial co-operatives engaged in activities such as re-cycling of scrap wood into crates and furniture, welding, steel scrap baling, battery cable assembly etc. The Tata Motors Grihini Social Welfare Society caters to employees’ women dependents’. The women folk make a variety of products, ranging from pickles and uniforms to electrical cable harnesses etc. 3)H. R Policies Executive Selection Scheme (ESS)

ESS is a fast track programme for accelerated growth of high potential professionals. This facilitates their early advancement to challenging and visible assignments through a very systematic procedure. Candidates selected gain a huge lead in terms of promotion and learning. They are promoted to Manager’s level thereby saving almost 10 to 13 years of work time. The successful candidates are relieved from their current jobs and put on various project based training programmes under the guidance of senior managers in the Company. If the candidates do not possess management education, they undergo a 4 months MEP at IIM, Ahmedabad.

After successful completion of training the candidates are mandatorily rotated across departments to acquire general management skills. The ESS is a jewel in Tata Motors overall profile as it provides a platform for every employee of the Company to perform and achieve maximum potential. The HR-Training Division of Tata Motors has also bagged the prestigious and internationally recognized “Golden Peacock National Training Award” in the category of ‘Large Employer’ 4)Manufacturing process The company has manufacturing plants in Jamshedpur, Pimri , chinwad (near pune), and lucknow.

Tata has taken many initiatives in manufacturing its vehicles , these can be summarized into :- 4. 1)Benchmarking Tata motors have employed M/s harbor associates as CONSULTANTS for benchmarking various automobile manufacturing aspects like level of automation , quality norms and standards followed internationally,information sharing with other manufacturers, etc. 4. 2)Capacity utilization Tata motors have undertaken processing of Mercedes Benz cars in their paint shops, which has led to fullcapacity utilization of its paint plant and also helped in benchmarking the facilities and practices to that of Mercedes Benz. . 3)Load Management The following load management techniques were employed :- • Use of under body spray machine. • Starting of chilling plants • Switching off transformers when not in use. • Switching off unwanted cooling towers at press shop. Training & Development Continuous education is necessary for each of us to excel in our jobs and grow in our careers . Developing new skills not only increases competency and efficiency, it also makes our jobs more interesting.

The training schemes offered by our Organisation help keep our employees abreast with the rapid developments in their field. All employees • Training requirements are identified for a period of 12 months i. e. from April to March of a financial year. This is done in the last quarter of the preceding year through the appraisal form/ individual or divisional training needs surveys undertaken by HR/Training Division. • Training needs are identified on the basis of individual development needs, job improvement plans, future requirements and management priorities. After the identification of training needs, HR/Training Division prepares a consolidated list of the programs requested for, and forwards the same to the Divisional Heads. • On the basis of the training programs on offer, and the specific requirements of the employees and the division, the Divisional Heads intimate the HR/Training Division about the people they are recommending for training. • Divisional Head in consonance with the HR Department is responsible for identifying training needs and the HR Department is responsible for organising training for all employees. FTAs OTs GET’s Post

Graduates Duration 2-4 years 1 year 1 year 6 months depending (probation) on trade Training Trained in One year rotational training Placed in the workshop, mfg in various divisions and work- division after divisions and shop training. Supplemented induction class room by class room inputs Absorption/ Not automatic, Based on performance Confirmation but preference given based on vacancies Stipend/ Salary As per Apprenticeship Act How it works • External training programs are usually utilised if our Organisation is unable to provide the required training at our Management Development Centres. Nominations for External Training are made by the Departmental Head and sent to the HR Division for further processing. • HR Division recommends a training program and obtains the approval of the appropriate Sanctioning Authority prior to processing the nomination. Employees are deputed abroad for the following: • Assignments • Attending Executive Development Programs • Getting trained by Tata Motors collaborators/foreign business associates • Attending trade fairs, exhibitions, motor shows, conferences etc. STATE INSTITUE OF AUTOMATIVE AND DRIVING SKILLS

SIADS is a joint venture between TATA MOTORS and PUNJAB GOVERNMENT with 50-50% share. This is an institute of ITI level which provides courses like Driving Skills, Automation, Electrical, and Mechanical. This is the first institution in Punjab where proper course is taught for driving. The management is looked after the PRTC. Mr. S. B. Bhagwat is the director of SIADS and Consultant Advisor of TATA MOTORS. INTRODUTION TO THE TOPIC Training can be described as “the acquisition of skills, concepts or attitudes that result in improved performance within the job environment”.

Training analysis looks at each aspect of an operational domain so that the initial skills, concepts and attitudes of the human elements of a system can be effectively identified and appropriate training can be specified The quality of employees and their development through training and education are major factors in determining long-term profitability of a small business. If we hire and keep good employees, it is good policy to invest in the development of their skills, so they can increase their productivity. Training often is considered for new employees only.

This is a mistake because ongoing training for current employees helps them adjust to rapidly changing job requirements. Purpose of Employee Training and Development Process Reasons for emphasizing the growth and development of personnel include •Creating a pool of readily available and adequate replacements for personnel who may leave or move up in the organization. •Enhancing the company’s ability to adopt and use advances in technology because of a sufficiently knowledgeable staff. •Building a more efficient, effective and highly motivated team, which enhances the company’s competitive position and improves employee morale. Ensuring adequate human resources for expansion into new programs. Research has shown specific benefits that a small business receives from training and developing its workers, including: •Increased productivity. •Reduced employee turnover. •Increased efficiency resulting in financial gains. •Decreased need for supervision. Employees frequently develop a greater sense of self-worth, dignity and well-being as they become more valuable to the firm and to society. Generally they will receive a greater share of the material gains that result from their increased productivity.

These factors give them a sense of satisfaction through the achievement of personal and company goals. The Training Process The model below traces the steps necessary in the training process: •Organizational Objectives •Needs Assessment •Is There a Gap? •Training Objectives •Select the Trainees •Select the Training Methods and Mode •Choose a Means of Evaluating •Administer Training •Evaluate the Training The business should have a clearly defined strategy and set of objectives that direct and drive all the decisions made especially for training decisions. Firms that plan their training process are more successful than those that do not.

Most business owners want to succeed, but do not engage in training design that promise to improve their chances of success. Why? The five reasons most often identified are: Time – Small businesses managers find that time demands do not allow them to train employees. Getting started – Most small business managers have not practiced training employees. The training process is unfamiliar. Broad expertise – Managers tend to have broad expertise rather than the specialized skills needed for training and development activities. Lack of trust and openness – Many managers prefer to keep information to themselves.

By doing so they keep information from subordinates and others who could be useful in the training and development process. Scepticism as to the value of the training – Some small business owners believe the future cannot be predicted or controlled and their efforts, therefore, are best centred on current activities i. e. , making money today. A well-conceived training program can help the firm succeed. A program structured with the company’s strategy and objectives in mind has a high probability of improving productivity and other goals that are set in the training mission.

For any business, formulating a training strategy requires addressing a series of questions. •Who are your customers? Why do they buy from you? •Who are your competitors? How do they serve the market? What competitive advantages do they enjoy? What parts of the market have they ignored? •What strengths does the company have? What weaknesses? •What social trends are emerging that will affect the firm? The purpose of formulating a training strategy is to answer two relatively simple but vitally important questions: (1) What is our business? and (2) What should our business be?

Armed with the answers to these questions and a clear vision of its mission, strategy and objectives, a company can identify its training needs. TRAINING NEED ASSESSMENT A “training needs assessment”, or “training needs analysis”, is the systematic method of determining if a training need exists and if it does, what training is required to fill the gap between the standard and the actual performance of the employee. Therefore, training needs analysis is •Systematic method of determining performance discrepancies •Causes of performance discrepancies Reasons to conduct training needs analysis Identify the deficiencies •Determine whether employees lack KSAs •Benchmark for evaluation of training •Makes sure training is provided to the right people •Increases the motivation of training Identifying Training Needs Training needs can be assessed by analyzing three major human resource areas: the organization as a whole, the job characteristics and the needs of the individuals. This analysis will provide answers to the following questions: •Where is training needed? •What specifically must an employee learn in order to be more productive? •Who needs to be trained?

Begin by assessing the current status of the company how it does what it does best and the abilities of your employees to do these tasks. This analysis will provide some benchmarks against which the effectiveness of a training program can be evaluated. Your firm should know where it wants to be in five years from its long-range strategic plan. What you need is a training program to take your firm from here to there. Second, consider whether the organization is financially committed to supporting the training efforts. If not, any attempt to develop a solid training program will fail. Next, etermine exactly where training is needed. It is foolish to implement a companywide training effort without concentrating resources where they are needed most. An internal audit will help point out areas that may benefit from training. Also, a skills inventory can help determine the skills possessed by the employees in general. This inventory will help the organization determine what skills are available now and what skills are needed for future development. Also, in today’s market-driven economy, we would be remiss not to ask the customers what they like about the business and what areas they think should be improved.

In summary, the analysis should focus on the total organization and should tell (1) where training is needed and (2) where it will work within the organization. Once it is determined where training is needed, concentrate on the content of the program. Analyze the characteristics of the job based on its description, the written narrative of what the employee actually does. Training based on job descriptions should go into detail about how the job is performed on a task-by-task basis. Actually doing the job will enable you to get a better feel for what is done.

Individual employees can be evaluated by comparing their current skill levels or performance to the organization’s performance standards or anticipated needs. Any discrepancy between actual and anticipated skill levels identifies a training need. There are a variety of sources for collecting data for a task analysis: •Job description– A narrative statement of the major activities involved in performing the job and the conditions under which these activities are performed. If an accurate job description is not available or is out of date, one should be prepared using job analysis techniques. KSA analysis– A more detailed list of specified tasks for each job including Knowledge, Skills, Attitudes and Abilities required of incumbents. •Performance standards– Objectives of the tasks of the job and the standards by which they will be judged. This is needed to identify performance discrepancies. •Observe the job/sample the work. •Perform the job. •Job inventory questionnaire– Evaluate tasks in terms of importance and time spent performing. •Review literature about the job– Research the “best practices” from other companies, review professional journals. Ask questions about the job– Of the incumbents, of the supervisor, of upper management. •Analysis of operating problems– Down time, waste, repairs, late deliveries, quality control. Individual analysis analyzes how well the individual employee is doing the job and determines which employees need training and what kind. Sources of information available for a individual analysis include: •Performance evaluation — Identifies weaknesses and areas of improvement. •Performance problems — Productivity, absenteeism or tardiness, accidents, grievances, waste, product quality, down time, repairs, equipment utilization, customer complaints. Observation — Observe both behaviour and the results of the behaviour. •Work samples — Observe products generated. •Interviews — Talk to manager, supervisor and employee. Ask employee about what he/she believes he/she needs to learn. •Questionnaires — Written form of the interview, tests, must measure job-related qualities such as job knowledge and skills. •Attitude surveys — Measures morale, motivation, satisfaction. •Checklists or training progress charts — Up-to-date listing of current skills. Results of the Needs Assessment

Assuming that the needs assessment identifies more than one training need, the training manager, working with management, prioritizes the training based on the urgency of the need (timeliness), the extent of the need (how many employees need to be trained) and the resources available. Based on this information, the training manager can develop the instructional objectives for the training and development program. All three levels of needs analysis are interrelated and the data collected from each level is critical to a thorough and effective needs assessment. Selection of Trainees

Once it is decided what training is necessary and where it is needed, the next decision is who should be trained? For a small business, this question is crucial. Training an employee is expensive, especially when he or she leaves your firm for a better job. Therefore, it is important to carefully select who will be trained. Training programs should be designed to consider the ability of the employee to learn the material and to use it effectively, and to make the most efficient use of resources possible. It is also important that employees be motivated by the training experience.

Employee failure in the program is not only damaging to the employee but a waste of money as well. Selecting the right trainees is important to the success of the program. Training Goals The goals of the training program should relate directly to the needs determined by the assessment process outlined above. Course objectives should clearly state what behavior or skill will be changed as a result of the training and should relate to the mission and strategic plan of the company. Goals should include milestones to help take the employee from where he or she is today to where the firm wants him or her in the future.

Setting goals helps to evaluate the training program and also to motivate employees. Allowing employees to participate in setting goals increases the probability of success. Training Methods There are two broad types of training available to small businesses: on-the-job and off-the-job techniques. Individual circumstances and the “who,” “what” and “why” of your training program determine which method to use. On-the-job training is delivered to employees while they perform their regular jobs. In this way, they do not lose time while they are learning.

After a plan is developed for what should be taught, employees should be informed of the details. A timetable should be established with periodic evaluations to inform employees about their progress. On-the-job techniques include orientations, job instruction training, apprenticeships, internships and assistantships, job rotation and coaching. Off-the-job techniques include lectures, special study, films, television conferences or discussions, case studies, role playing, simulation, programmed instruction and laboratory training. Most of these techniques can be used by small businesses although, some may be too costly.

Orientations are for new employees. The first several days on the job are crucial in the success of new employees. This point is illustrated by the fact that 60 percent of all employees who quit do so in the first ten days. Orientation training should emphasize the following topics: •The company’s history and mission. •The key members in the organization. •The key members in the department, and how the department helps fulfill the mission of the company. •Personnel rules and regulations. Some companies use verbal presentations while others have written presentations. Many small businesses convey these topics in one-on-one orientations.

No matter what method is used, it is important that the newcomer understand his or her new place of employment. Lectures present training material verbally and are used when the goal is to present a great deal of material to many people. It is more cost effective to lecture to a group than to train people individually. Lecturing is one-way communication and as such may not be the most effective way to train. Also, it is hard to ensure that the entire audience understands a topic on the same level; by targeting the average attendee you may undertrain some and lose others.

Despite these drawbacks, lecturing is the most cost-effective way of reaching large audiences. Role playing and simulation are training techniques that attempt to bring realistic decision making situations to the trainee. Likely problems and alternative solutions are presented for discussion. The adage there is no better trainer than experience is exemplified with this type of training. Experienced employees can describe real world experiences, and can help in and learn from developing the solutions to these simulations. This method is cost effective and is used in marketing and management training.

Audiovisual methods such as television, videotapes and films are the most effective means of providing real world conditions and situations in a short time. One advantage is that the presentation is the same no matter how many times it’s played. This is not true with lectures, which can change as the speaker is changed or can be influenced by outside constraints. The major flaw with the audiovisual method is that it does not allow for questions and interactions with the speaker, nor does it allow for changes in the presentation for different audiences. Job rotation involves moving an employee through a eries of jobs so he or she can get a good feel for the tasks that are associated with different jobs. It is usually used in training for supervisory positions. The employee learns a little about everything. This is a good strategy for small businesses because of the many jobs an employee may be asked to do. Apprenticeships develop employees who can do many different tasks. They usually involve several related groups of skills that allow the apprentice to practice a particular trade, and they take place over a long period of time in which the apprentice works for, and with, the senior skilled worker.

Apprenticeships are especially appropriate for jobs requiring production skills. Internships and assistantships are usually a combination of classroom and on-the-job training. They are often used to train prospective managers or marketing personnel. Programmed learning, computer-aided instruction and interactive video all have one thing in common: they allow the trainee to learn at his or her own pace. Also, they allow material already learned to be bypassed in favor of material with which a trainee is having difficulty. After the introductory period, the instructor need not be present, and the trainee can learn as his or her time allows.

These methods sound good, but may be beyond the resources of some small businesses. Laboratory training is conducted for groups by skilled trainers. It usually is conducted at a neutral site and is used by upper- and middle management trainees to develop a spirit of teamwork and an increased ability to deal with management and peers. It can be costly and usually is offered by larger small businesses. Trainers Who actually conducts the training depends on the type of training needed and who will be receiving it. On-the-job training is conducted mostly by supervisors; off-the-job training, by either in-house personnel or outside instructors.

In-house training is the daily responsibility of supervisors and employees. Supervisors are ultimately responsible for the productivity and, therefore, the training of their subordinates. These supervisors should be taught the techniques of good training. They must be aware of the knowledge and skills necessary to make a productive employee. Trainers should be taught to establish goals and objectives for their training and to determine how these objectives can be used to influence the productivity of their departments.

They also must be aware of how adults learn and how best to communicate with adults. Small businesses need to develop their supervisors’ training capabilities by sending them to courses on training methods. The investment will pay off in increased productivity. There are several ways to select training personnel for off-the-job training programs. Many small businesses use in-house personnel to develop formal training programs to be delivered to employees off line from their normal work activities, during company meetings or individually at prearranged training sessions.

There are many outside training sources, including consultants, technical and vocational schools, continuing education programs, chambers of commerce and economic development groups. Selecting an outside source for training has advantages and disadvantages. The biggest advantage is that these organizations are well versed in training techniques, which is often not the case with in-house personnel. The disadvantage of using outside training specialists is their limited knowledge of the company’s product or service and customer needs. These trainers have a more general knowledge of customer satisfaction and needs.

In many cases, the outside trainer can develop this knowledge quickly by immersing himself or herself in the company prior to training the employees. Another disadvantage of using outside trainers is the relatively high cost compared to in-house training, although the higher cost may be offset by the increased effectiveness of the training. Whoever is selected to conduct the training, either outside or in-house trainers, it is important that the company’s goals and values be carefully explained. Training Administration Having planned the training program properly, we must now administer the training to the selected employees.

It is important to follow through to make sure the goals are being met. Questions to consider before training begins include: •Location. •Facilities. •Accessibility. •Comfort. •Equipment. •Timing. Careful attention to these operational details will contribute to the success of the training program. An effective training program administrator should follow these steps: •Define the organizational objectives. •Determine the needs of the training program. •Define training goals. •Develop training methods. •Decide whom to train. •Decide who should do the training. •Administer the training. •Evaluate the training program.

Following these steps will help an administrator develop an effective training program to ensure that the firm keeps qualified employees who are productive, happy workers. This will contribute positively to the bottom line. Evaluation of Training Training should be evaluated several times during the process. Determine these milestones when you develop the training. Employees should be evaluated by comparing their newly acquired skills with the skills defined by the goals of the training program. Any discrepancies should be noted and adjustments made to the training program to enable it to meet specified goals.

Many training programs fall short of their expectations simply because the administrator failed to evaluate its progress until it was too late. Timely evaluation will prevent the training from straying from its goals. REVIEW OF LITERATURE Review of Literature The Significance of Training The critical importance of training in business has repeatedly been underlined in academic research. While the process of recruitment focuses on attracting and acquiring human resources, training aims to develop the available human resources in order to increase their productivity and mprove their ability to contribute to the organization’s objectives. Training in industry has been defined as “(…) the formal procedures which a company uses to facilitate employees’ learning so that their resultant behaviour contributes to the attainment of the company’s goals and objectives” (McGehee and Thayer, 1961). Goldstein and Ford (2002) view workplace training as “a systematic approach to learning and development to improve individual, team, or organizational effectiveness”.

According to Carnevale (1990) the characteristics of “High Leverage Training” are its links to strategic business objectives, the use of an instructional design process to ensure that training is effective, and the comparison of the company’s training programmes with practices in other companies. Recent developments in the business world affect the need for training. McManus, McManus and Hayes Williamson (1994) suggest that there are four major impacts to be considered: 1) Accelerating global competition, 2) Continuing reorganization of workplace structures, 3) Advancing technology, 4) Increasing workforce diversity.

Many industries, including the hospitality sector are affected by these issues. These changes influence the way in which training is delivered. Martocchio and Baldwin (1997) argue that the role of training is moving from a focus of teaching employees specific skills to a broader focus on creating and sharing knowledge. Tracey (2003) asserts that training has become a more strategic activity, thus it is critical to understand how training and related changes initiatives are integrated in order to enhance individual and firm performance. The Systems Approach to Training

One widely known approach to training is the systems perspective which considers training a subsystem of a larger organizational system. It emanates from the General Systems Theory (von Bertalanffy, 1968) which was developed as a structured way to organize large amounts of information by describing entities (systems) in terms of: 1) Their components (sub-systems) with their respective interactions, 2) Their belonging to larger entities (supra-systems), and 3) The interaction with their environment. A system receives inputs and sends outputs, both filtered by a boundary (Berrien, 1968).

Hinrichs (1976) adapted Systems Theory to Training Theory. He suggested several levels: Individual training as a sub-system of the training departments, which is a sub-system of executive management, itself a sub-system of the business society. Each of these levels (systems) interact with their respective supra- and sub-systems via inputs and outputs. Hinrichs differentiated between maintenance inputs (for example resources) which keep the systems functioning and signal inputs (for example information) which initiate action.

A system can direct its output towards the overlying supra-system, the underlying sub-system or towards itself in form of feedback. One important issue in systems theory is that changes to any system will inevitably impact its supra- and sub-systems, thus the theory encourages to think in a holistic manner. The systems approach is extremely helpful in order to understand how training processes its inputs, produces outputs and, by doing so, how it impacts the other organizational sub-systems and how it contributes to the organization’s success. Training and Strategy

One issue often recurs in organizational studies without necessarily referring to systems theory. It is the suggestion that there should be a reciprocal link between the training function and the strategy of organizations. This means that training strategy should not only be derived from the organizational strategy, but that the organizational strategy itself should also be developed in accordance with the organization’s human resources potential and its training possibilities. According to Barney and Wright (1998), successful firms in every industry are more likely than poor performers to deal strategically with HR.

Johnson and Scholes (1993) suggest that company strategy is concerned with the following dimensions: 1) The range of an organization’s activities, 2) The matching of an organization’s activities to the environment, and 3) The matching of an organization’s activities to available resources. These dimensions imply a reciprocal interaction between training and strategy. Brown and Read (1984) argue that training must be linked to strategy if it is to be considered effective by higher management.

They further suggest that UK companies could close their productivity gap with Japanese companies by taking a strategic view of their training policies. This should be achieved by construing the training plan in the same context and by the same process as the business plan. Hussey (1985) recommends that training objectives, especially for management development, be reviewed by top management whenever a substantial change in strategic emphasis is planned. In the organizational reality the link between organizational strategy and training strategy is often weak or non-existent.

Harrison (1997) points out that an alignment between strategy and training is universally regarded as good business sense, nevertheless there is considerable evidence in Europe and the United States that, although this is recognized at the intellectual level, the practice is very different. He also notes that research has failed to reveal any significant connection between HRD and business strategy across organizations in the UK. Beaumont (1992) states that US studies found that only 22% of companies had extensive levels of integration of HR and business strategy.

The Systematic Approach to Training The systematic approach to training should not be confounded with the systems perspective, although both can co-exist within the same organization. Most researchers recommend a structured and methodical approach to training. In 1961, McGehee and Thayer wrote: “Training, if it is to become an effective tool of management, must be a systematic, orderly procedure, constructively applied to solutions of organizational problems and attainment of organizational goals”.

A systematic approach increases the likelihood that the various steps of the process are aligned with each other and that the training programme as a whole will be successful. The combination of the various steps involved in planning, implementing and evaluating training has often been referred to as the “Training Cycle”. McManus, McManus and Hayes Williamson (1994) suggest a simple structured methodology (called Training Loop) which consists of four steps: 1) Assess; 2) Design; 3) Deliver; 4) Evaluate. The final step (evaluate) feeds back to the departing point (assess) and thus impacts future training activities.

Although various other systematic training models have been developed, they usually build on what Noe (1999) calls the instructional design process and contain some form of the following six steps: 1) Conduct need assessment; 2) Ensure employee readiness for training; 3) Create a learning environment; 4) Ensure transfer of training; 5) Select training methods; 6) Evaluate training programmes. Note that these steps do not necessarily need to be rigidly sequenced and demarcated from each other. The information obtained in the evaluation phase eeds back to the beginning of the process and helps to define new training needs and objectives and to select and design training methods. Thus the description as a cycle or a loop is an appropriate analogy. One advantage of the systematic approach to training is that it may be applied in conjunction with a performance management programme. For example it can be used with goal setting theory (Locke and Latham, 1990), where individual goals can serve as a basis for defining training needs and later as criteria to evaluate the success of training programmes.

The individual goals should be linked to organizational objectives. In the training cycle, the outcome of the assessment phase can be considered to be the foundation on which the whole training initiative will be based. All following steps will build on the information provided in the assessment phase. One important use of this information is the development of criteria to be used in evaluation in order to determine the success of the training intervention.

The cycle perspective does not necessarily consider the assessment phase to be the beginning, since information gained in the evaluation phase of a previous training programme may also give the impetus for a new need assessment initiative. It is important to note once again in this context that the need assessment phase may also reveal that training is not the most appropriate option to close performance gaps. Need Assessment and Training Needs Analysis (TNA) Kaufman et al. (1993) define need assessment as a process for identifying and prioritizing gaps between current and desired results.

Molenda, Pershing and Reigeluth (1996) adopt a similar view and describe need assessment as a method of finding out the nature and extent of performance problems and how they can be solved. Both definitions indicate that potential solutions to close the performance gap emerge during the process. These remedies may or may not include training. Wright and Geroy (1992) suggest that up to 90% of productivity improvement can be found in the work environments or cultures and conclude that a needs analysis tied exclusively to training is often ineffective.

Gupta (1999) proposes a hierarchy of needs assessments approaches, which are in descending order: 1) Strategic needs assessment; 2) Competency based assessment; 3) Job and task analysis; 4) Training needs assessment. The higher the level, the more time and rigor is required. These four levels can be integrated in McGehee and Thayer’s (1961) OTP framework which will be used in the study. The strategic level may be considered as a part of the organizational analysis, competency based assessment and job and task analysis are included in OTP’s task analysis phase, and training needs assessment is comprised in person analysis.

Watkins et al. (2000) point out that there has been much confusion in literature with the terms “needs analysis”, “training needs assessment” and “training needs analysis”. Similarly to the definitions mentioned above, they suggest that needs assessments provide a process for identifying and prioritizing gaps between current and desired results. They also argue that “although the literature does not offer universal agreement with this definition of needs assessment, there does seem to be agreement that this approach is best suited to performance improvement.

Whether these areas are identified as training requirements, resource inadequacies, and/or gaps in results is dependent on the assessment model applied. ” McArdle (1996) on the other hand distinguishes between two types of needs assessment: The first, a problem analysis model, is similar to the gap analysis mentioned above and offers solutions based on performance shortcomings. The second, a competency model, is more proactive and focuses on available opportunities by identifying and developing new competencies. Both models can help identify training requirements.

Wright and Geroy (1992) make several recommendations for a need assessment model to be useful: 1) It should be grounded in the organizations’ culture; 2) It should be proactive rather than reactive; 3) It should be able to differentiate between training requirements and situations for which training would be inappropriate; 4) It should broadly involve many of the individuals and groups affected; 5) It should use several data collection methods. The needs assessment process therefore leads to the selection of one or several intervention methods, whether it is training or something else.

TNA should be distinguished from a superordinate needs assessment process which considers all potential solutions which may close the performance gap. One question emerging from this discussion is how to migrate from general needs assessment to TNA. In other words when a gap has been identified, how should organizations decide whether training is the appropriate solution, and once this question has been positively answered, how should they analyze the existing training needs? Mager and Pipe (1991) developed a practical Training Decision Flow Chart in which answers to a eries of questions help to select solutions for existing performance problems. The model begins with a description of the performance discrepancy and the fundamental question, whether this gap is important. If not, it can be ignored. The next question asks whether the performance discrepancy is related to a skill deficiency, in which case training is a potential remedy. If a skill deficiency is not the cause, the model leads to alternative solutions which impact motivation and the work environment.

It is important to note that training can only solve performance discrepancies that are caused by deficiencies in knowledge, skills or abilities (KSA). Taylor, O’Driscoll and Binning (1998) highlight the chain of linkages which are involved. There are four links in the process: Training leads to increased KSA, which causes changed job behaviour. The changed behaviour then impacts organizationally valued results. They acknowledge that each step can be affected by external influences.

For example non-training alternatives can improve knowledge and skills (for example hiring employees already having the KSA required), or job behaviour can be influenced by aspects other than KSA (for example availability of resources). The TNA builds the foundation for the organization’s training efforts, as the main steps of a systematic training programme draw on the information obtained in the process (Arthur, Bennett, Edens and Bell, 2003). According to Goldstein and Ford (2002), the TNA phase provides all the critical input for both the design of the training environment and the evaluation of the actual training programme.

They further suggest that a thorough TNA helps to establish content validity of training programmes, as “the training programme should reflect the domain of KSAs represented on the job that the analyst has determined should be learned in the training programme”. However caution must be exercised with jobs that are changing rapidly, as the information collected may quickly become obsolete. In an extensive TNA exercise, data will be collected from different sources. Cline and Seibert (1993) distinguish between hard and soft data sources.

Hard data sources are for example existing organizational reports and statistics, soft data sources are questionnaires, group discussions and interviews. The OTP Framework One of the most widely known TNA frameworks is McGehee and Thayer’s (1961) OTP typology, which suggests that a thorough TNA consists of three levels: 1) Organization analysis; 2) Job or task analysis (originally called operations analysis); 3) Person analysis (originally called man analysis). This concept was later refined and expanded by several researchers.

Goldstein and Ford (2002) for example added two steps: First they see the establishment of organizational support as a first component in the process and a prerequisite for a successful training initiative. This step is concerned with establishing relationships between the training specialists or the researchers and the various organizational levels which are expected to support the programme. Goldstein and Ford assert that this support should be secured before the organizational analysis can begin.

Then, once the organization’s needs have been assessed, and before the task and the person needs can be analyzed, several details must be clarified so that the subsequent steps can be applied properly. According to Goldstein and Ford, this is done in a “Requirements Analysis”. This phase explicitly considers issues such as defining the target job, choosing the methods with which the job and the persons in question will be analysed, and determining the participants in the needs assessment process. Assessors should carefully select the methods they will use in the task and the person analysis as they all have strengths and limitations.

Latham et al. (1998) add a fourth macro-type dimension to McGehee and Thayer’s framework. They call this additional step “Demographic Analysis”. It identifies the needs of the different populations of workers in the organization. They underline the necessity of this step by referring to the recent demographic changes experienced by organizations which affect training. Such changes include the increase of minorities, women and older employees in the workplace, but also the growing number of entry level workers with little basic skills and literacy levels for which special training programmes may have to be designed.

While Goldstein and Ford (2002) consider this step to be a part of the organization analysis, Latham et al. (1998) claim that the high impact of demographic changes warrants a separate consideration. Organization Analysis Organizational issues have a b impact on the way training programmes are planned and implemented and must therefore be analysed. This level of examination focuses not only on determining where training should be delivered in the organization, but also on exploring organizational aspects which may affect the training activities.

For example, the need to align training objectives with the organization’s strategy has repeatedly been underlined (Brown and Read, 1984; Schuler and Jackson, 1987). Noe et al. (1997) suggest that companies nowadays face four competitive challenges: 1) The quality challenge which is concerned with meeting customer needs, 2) The global challenge which involves international expansion; 3) The high performance work system challenge which involves integrating new technologies and work design, and finally 4) The social challenge which is concerned with the management of a diverse workforce.

Each of these challenges present different training needs. A thorough organization analysis will carefully examine the company’s overall strategy and objectives to ensure that the training activities will support this thrust. This first step of the OPT model also examines the environment within the company. Noe and Colquitt (2002) found that training effectiveness is not only affected by content and delivery but also by the organizational climate.

According to McGehee and Thayer (1961) an exhaustive organization analysis consists of four distinct steps: 1) A statement of the organization’s objectives; 2) An analysis of human resources; 3) An analysis of efficiency indices; 4) An analysis of organizational climate. The last three steps are considered within the context of the organization’s objectives. This draws the attention to the areas in which task and person analysis may be necessary. This process is closely related to the performance gap concept proposed by Zaltman and Duncan (1977).

Goldstein and Ford (2002) add the identification of external and legal constraints as additional components of the organization analysis. Such regulations have proliferated in the past decades especially with regards to anti-discrimination and safety issues and should be carefully considered. Task Analysis (Job Analysis) As mentioned previously, a performance gap uncovered through the comparison of an organization’s objectives with the current situation can draw attention to certain jobs and positions within the company where training may be necessary.

Task analysis is “a method of determining the knowledge, skills, tools, conditions and requirements necessary to perform a job” (Callahan, 1985). A task analysis dissects a job into its different task components and draws conclusions about the KSA and job behaviours needed to perform them successfully. McGehee and Thayer (1961) divide task analysis into four main phases: 1) Determination of standards of performance; 2) Identification of tasks that constitute a job; 3) Description of how each task is to be performed; 4) Identification of KSA needed for each task.

Goldstein and Ford (2002) call this phase “Task and KSA Analysis”. Once this is completed, the researcher can proceed and analyse the persons who perform the job in question and examine whether the incumbents possess the KSA required (person analysis). Goldstein and Ford (2002) recommend a similar procedure although they emphasize that task analysis should particularly concentrate on tasks that are most important for the job and difficult to learn. According to Carnevale et al. (1990) a task analysis should not only identify what the job incumbents are actually doing, but also what they should do.

In order to increase the validity of the analysis, they suggest that at least two methods of data collection should be used. As a useful method, Carnevale et al. recommend questioning Subject Matter Experts (SMEs) such as employees familiar with the job and their managers. In their highly practical manual, Pearn and Kandola (1993) list and describe several methods for analysing

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