Grieve 1 Thomas Grieve English 2010 Professor Memmott 17 November 2011 Thesis and Outline for the Final Paper Thesis: Children affected with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) experience frustration trying to accomplish simple everyday tasks, but with the help of medication and the involvement of parents, educators, professionals, daycare providers, and oneself they are able to better control their actions and behaviors to achieve success. I. What is Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)? A. ADHD is the most diagnosed childhood neurological behavioral disorder. B.
ADHD is a behavioral condition that makes focusing on everyday tasks and achieving simple goals difficult. II. What are the factors in determining if a child has ADHD? A. Children with ADHD have a hard time being organized, staying focused, thinking before acting, sitting still, paying attention, and adapting. B. ADHD patients many times will struggle socially in school and at home. C. Children need to show symptoms in two or more settings. 1. One setting could be school. 2. One setting could be at home. 3. A third setting could be at a daycare. III. What does the brain have to do with ADHD?
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A. Neurotransmitters or chemical messengers are produced inside the brain. 1. One function that these help to control is attention. 2. Another function that they help control is impulsiveness. B. Dopamine is produced to enhance signals, improve attention, improve focus, and other cognitive functions. IV. Exact causes of ADHD are not known, but some things have been determined to be a factor in helping to cause this disorder. A. ADHD is a highly inheritable neurologically based condition. 1. Certain inherited genes have said to carry over into children of ADHD patients. 2. 5% of ADHD children’s parents are also diagnosed with this disorder. B. Brain development, brain trauma from injury, or brain trauma from an illness such as tumors/strokes can be a contributing factor to ADHD. C. Some other factors that can contribute are lead exposure or alcohol/tobacco use during pregnancy. V. The following can be diagnostic criteria’s for ADHD; 6 symptoms off of a list should persist for 6 months before being diagnosed. A. The first list is the inattentive disorganized dimension. 1. Some symptoms include failure to notice details, trouble paying attention to asks, doesn’t listen, struggles organizing, or misplaces things for assignments. Grieve 2 2. The children are also easily distracted or forget easily. B. The second one is the hyperactivity impulsivity dimension. 1. Some of these symptoms are fidgets with hands or feet, cannot stay seated, restlessness, cannot do things quietly, talks excessively, or is always on the go. 2. They also have a tendency to blurt out answers before the question is finished, cannot wait their turn, or interrupts others. VI. Based on the research of these lists, there are 3 subtypes of ADHD. A.
Predominantly inattentive is when six symptoms of the 1st list appear. B. Predominantly hyperactive-impulsive is when 6 symptoms from the second type show. C. Combined is when there are 6 symptoms of either list that are present in a person. VII. “Orchid Children” is an article written about the study of ADHD children. A. Orchid children is when ADHD children are compared to an orchid because like orchids, they are fragile and fickle, but if given the proper care, they will thrive. 1. With the right environment and parenting, these children will happily, become more creative, and more successful. . Early life experiences that are positive and a great parent bonding, gives them the ability to feel like they can accomplish more. B. Dandelion children are considered to represent the “normal” child because they are more resilient and hardy to everyday life as is a Dandelion. C. Key behavioral genes make these children more vulnerable to personality disorders and mood changes. D. Orchid children and Dandelion children can provide an adaptive flexibility in society with each other that cannot be produced alone, which allows them both to be a more well-rounded individual. VIII.
Children diagnosed with ADHD are more likely to use drugs and abuse substances. A. Children with ADHD are 3 times more likely to abuse drugs and alcohol than those without this disorder. B. They are also twice as likely to experiment with nicotine and illicit illegal drugs. C. ? of 18-44 year old adults that depend on substances have ADHD. D. This is where they find social acceptance and are able to forget about their problems and reality. IX. ADHD is sometimes overly diagnosed and can masquerade like other disorders. A. Some of these that are misdiagnosed as ADHD are thyroid disease, anemia, ypoglycemia, diabetes, post concussion syndrome, seizure disorder, side affects from other drugs or certain foods, depression, anxiety, or mild psychosis. B. Other hidden problems could also be sleep apnea, other hormonal diseases, lead poisoning, inhalation poisoning, malnutrition, vision problems, hearing problems, sensory issues, or other learning disabilities. X. ADHD is not all negative; there are some positive advantages that ADHD patients experience. A. Good qualities have also been found in those that are diagnosed with this disorder like reativity, charming, good judge of character, sense of humor, flexibility, sensitive to the environment, intuitiveness, passionate, enthusiastic, tries to please by doing better, and willing to take risks. B. One of the best things is that children with ADHD forgive easily. XI. Society can help to alleviate the pressures felt by ADHD children by providing a safe and happy environment for them to thrive in. A. Parents, teachers, professionals, and daycare providers can work together to devise a Grieve 3 plan and set up a routine that stays the same for these children everyday.
B. Alternative methods are being tried to improve on ADHD symptoms. 1. Some of these are changes in diet, taking vitamins or minerals, taking herbs, or hypnotherapy. 2. No alternative methods have been tested and proven to work. C. Exercise encourages the production of Dopamine, Norepinephrine, and Serotonin in the brain which has the same effect as stimulant medications on ADHD symptoms. D. Stimulants medication is the most popular and proven treatment for ADHD. 1. Stimulants affect how the brain controls impulses and regulates behavior and attention. 2.
Stimulants influence the neurotransmitters in the brain. 3. Stimulants help to control inattention, impulsiveness, and hyperactivity. 4. Stimulant medication helps show improvement in up to 90% of ADHD patients. 5. Stimulant medications have shown some side effects, but long term harm has not been shown. a. Stomachaches, headaches, and a brief slowing of growth are a few of the side effects that have been documented. b. Decreased appetite and sleeping are the most prominent side effects of these medications. . Stimulants have to be used as prescribed to get the ultimate success and if abused they may cause more problems than was previously had. a. If abused one can become addicted because the body is receiving a medication that it does not need. b. Although teens that are abusing stimulant medication think that their grades will improve because they can stay awake longer, which makes them think they are more alert; in actuality research has shown a decline in their grades because of the abuse.
XII. Improvements from stimulant medications can be more successful along with a safe environment and the right counseling too. A. Stimulant medication can help higher ones self-esteem and self-worth which in return can help them feel better about themselves and be able to succeed in society. B. Parents, teachers, counselors, and those that are around ADHD children should work together to provide them with the proper tools for success and maintain a high quality of life.