The Devastating Implication of Substance Abuse Submitted by Michael L. Albinos “l certify that I have read A Student’s Guide to Academic Integrity at the University of Oklahoma, and this paper is an original paper composed by me for this course. Except where properly cited and attributed, it has not been copied or closely reworded from any other source and has not been submitted as a whole, or in part, for credit in any other course at O or any other educational institution.
It has not been created or submitted for any other purpose such as a Job assignment at my oracle or any other agency. ” LAST-5083-200 – Qualitative Research Methods College of Liberal Studies The University of Oklahoma to Dry. Steven R. Gullible May 5, 2013 Abstract The aim of this paper is to discuss the application of contemporary grounded qualitative research methodology.
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This is a study that as a future researcher as a doctoral scientist in the field of prevention that this author would like to direct in order to create positive support for the addicted Native American of our country, particularly the indigenous people of the Great Plains; the Alaska Sioux. This proposed ethnographically qualitative research is designed to develop supportive data leading to future funding and legislation for alcohol prevention and treatment programs for the Native Americans living in the United States.
The hypothesis for this project is that a major contributing factor of the epidemically proportioned alcohol problem is that the indigenous people are genetic predisposed to alcohol abuse and addiction, compounded by the geographical location of the Native American, living on the Pine Ridge Reservation. This project will be in support of the plopped pattern of alcohol abuse amongst the Native Americans living on the reservations in order to establish a historic model of use and abuse. The data gathering processes for this project will executed by a collaborative team of researchers.
This activity will be divided into three distinct phases; the discovery phase, the immersion phase and the in-depth interviewing phase. The use of grounded theory supported by archival theories will develop a conceptual understanding of the propagating epidemic plaguing Native Americans not only on the Pine Ridge Reservation, but nationwide. Keywords: observer detect, booze snacks, ethnographic, gatekeeper, immersion “qualitative” research methodology to explore the experiences of the Native Americans modern existence on the Great Plains reservation.
In addition, the paper will describe a study that as a future researcher in the prevention field this author would like to conduct. Over the next pages the author will attempt to communicate and define the type of qualitative study that would lead to positive results for the Native American of our country, particularly the indigenous people of the Great Plains; the Alaska Sioux. Note: Given that this is a proposed study, this paper will entail the ambitious exaggerated dreams of the project that as a prevention scientist this author would like to undertake and manage.
Introduction The Googol Alaska Sioux occupy lands in Montana, Wyoming, Nebraska and both of the Dakota. They are living a modern epidemic. The men of the Alaska nation have a life expectancy of less than 44 years, which is the lowest of any country in the world (Schilling, 2012). One in ten Native American deaths are alcohol related, this rate is three times higher than general population (Schwartz, 2006). According to the Federal Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 75% of the Alaska adults suffer from alcoholism, and, 25% of tribal youths suffer from fetal alcohol syndrome (CDC, 2011).
While alcohol is banned on the reservation, tribal leaders report that “booze shacks” ran by non-landing are common occurrences along reservation borders. These establishments sell alcohol to the Native Americans, ignoring the fact that the tribe has a collective drinking problem. This activity violates a treaty elders signed with the federal government to keep alcohol outside a 10-mile buffer area around the Pine Ridge Reservation boarders (Schwartz, 2006).
The intended purpose of the “ethnographic” project is to us the data gathered in order to ecologically and genealogically map the extent of the alcohol problem on the Pine Ridge Reservation, by defining the relationship between the geographical locations, and genetic tendency for alcohol abuse and addiction. To summarize the research will attempt to create the supportive data needed to map the correlating interactions in the lives of the addicted. The data accumulated will support the cause for new legislation to address the current driving forces fueling the situation.
The research question that this project is seeking to address is twofold. A) Is the geographical living location of the addicted Native American, living on the Pine Ridge Reservation a contributing factor to the use and abuse of alcohol? And B) is the Native Americans genetic predisposition for alcohol abuse and addiction, a contributing factor to the epidemically proportioned alcohol problem on the Pine Ridge Reservation? In addressing these questions the researchers will first hit the archives in a quest for the supportive data that is immersed in existing theories.
Second the researchers ill hit the field to compile data leading to a grounded theory resulting in a finally explanation of the phenomenon plaguing the indigenous people of Americas Great Plains. Methods The use of grounded theory supported also by archival theories will develop a conceptual understanding to the propagating epidemic plaguing Native Americans not only on the Pine Ridge Reservation, but nationwide. There are several archived published articles and studies pointing fingers and making accusation, however the solid evidence only exists in the statistics.
It is the presumption that the supportive ATA acquired through an extensive in-depth study will produce empirically significant evidence to establish theoretical support for change. The proposed methodology for addressing the project questions will cover the spectrum of techniques. The data gathering process for the project will be divided into three distinct phases; the discovery phase, the immersion phase and the in-depth interviewing phase.
During the discovery phase the researchers will review statistics posted in the archives the CDC, the Native American Research Center for Health (MARCH), the National Bureau of Indian Affairs (NAIF), Rocky Mountain Bureau of Indian Health and Addiction (RHOMBI), and Substance Abuse & Mental Health Services Administration (SAMARA). This literature review will be in support of the reservations in order to establish a historic model of use and abuse. The researchers will incorporate the in-depth content analysis data coding process to establish a supportive sequence of data.
This model will support the studies hypothetical assumption of the indigenous genetically predisposition to alcohol addiction. Next, the study will take to the field in an effort to accumulate the needed ethnographic supportive data, through direct observation. During this part of the project the researchers will immerse themselves into the culture as a participant/observer. During this process the researchers will experience the social context, from the abusers spectrum in an effort to compile some semblance of the hopelessness of the situation.
And lastly, the research will take a direct information gathering approach, using simple and in-depth interviewing techniques and surveys in order to accumulate supportive data. During the “immersion” process the researchers will employ both covert and overt observation techniques. The data gathered during this recess will emphasize the importance of looking at the key elements in the natural setting of the observation (Loveland, 2006).
While moving between these two roles the aim of the researchers is to experience the culture in the manner in which the subjects being observed, experience their lifestyle. By understanding the participant’s perceptions, understandings and interpretations of their world, the researchers can objectivity understand, analyze and explain the social circumstances being studied (Berg & Lune, 2012). When the researcher first enters the field they will be making their observation as a covert simple observer, as a passive artificial, allowing their presents to become familiar.
Then the researchers will move into the role of a balanced participant will seek out a “gatekeeper” to assist the researcher’s immersion into the culture as an active participant, eventually leading to the formations of trust and the formation of interpersonal relationships as a total participant within the dismal world of the addicted (Loveland, 2006). During this time researcher will be living in the homeless camps and participating alongside of the suffering, without consuming the alcohol or without informing members of the social roof of the reasons for their presence; curbing the ethical boundaries (Berg & Lune, 2012).
By immersing one’s self into this culture as a participant/observer the researchers will acquires active knowledge beyond the simple observer into the perils of the culture. This covert approach will allow the researchers to eventually gain access to group who would otherwise not consent to the interaction. The covert approach will also avoid the “observer effect”, or the conception that individuals’ “behavior” may change if they know they are being studied providing a more accurate ascription of the dilemma (Berg & Lune, 2012).
The problems of field study data collection will be addressed with modern technology and the issues of “consent” will be addressed in the third phase of the project. The ethnographically process will be conducted in two parts, and will be considered the third phase or the overt facet of the study. First, given that the Pine Creek Reservation has been dry since the tribal council passed the Prohibition Proclamation in the early sass, there will be some semblance of the overt process when openly interviewing those actively participating in their addiction (Gillian, 2013).
In essence, all of those recovering from or actively participating in the use and abuse of alcohol are doing so against the reservation prohibition. Given this fact it is imperative that the researchers align with those being observed and alienate themselves from the establishment. In the second part of phrase three, the project will move into the overt in-depth interviewing stage. The question topics used during these interactions will be designed to correlate generational family history of addiction and the families geographical location in respect to businesses selling alcohol.
This stage will involve those directly in the throes of the addiction and those directly affect by an interpersonal relationship with the afflicted. Also this stage will also provide data accumulated through interviews with those involved on both side of the recovery process. During these interpersonal interactions the informed consent process will be undertaken. This consent will cover an explanation of the purposes of the research, reasonably foreseeable risk, benefits and expectations, confidentiality and rights (Encumber & Middleton, 1994).
There will be a short answer survey that roved direct quotations, designed or acquire the opinion of the reservation hierarchy and local law enforcement. This will be sent to a selected group from the tribal counsel, local religious leaders and law enforcement personal from the reservation police, and the county sheriffs departments of the surrounding areas. And finally, as part of the data collection process for the project there will be a simple profiling survey sent to the “booze shacks” that are operating on the boarders of the Pine Ridge Reservation to attempt to establish simple supportive data of the researcher’s direct observations.
Results The in-depth coding or the practical work from which the results of the study will be drawn, will take place in the lab. First, all recorded note and conversations will be process with the Google Talk App, which will convert all recorded data into a decentralized transcripts. Then the researchers will systematically process the accumulated qualitative data, using in-depth coding methodology on all field notes, surveys and the processed recorded interview transcripts. To aid the researchers through this tenuous process an optical character/ mark recognition software which is a annotation aid program, developed by MAXED (Quartz, 2013).
This program will be employed and the resulting data will be fed into and Statistical Product and Service Solutions 14 (SIPS, 2013). This program will identify the internal file structure immersed in the master code sheets creating the coding matrix. Finally, the content analysis will be drawn from the coding matrix presumptively providing the supporting data for the hypothesis. Discussion The proposed purpose of the ethnographically qualitative research project is to develop supportive data leading to future funding and legislation for alcohol prevention and treatment programs for the Native Americans living on the Great
Plains reservation. Issues and problems that will possibly emerge during this process are numerous. The study described is not a small project and is not intended to be accomplished in a matter of a few months by a single researcher. This is a very ambitious undertaking, not meant for an undergraduate or even a master’s level student. The project is intended to be part of a doctoral or beyond project and by a team of researchers. The amount of data that will require analyzing is immense. In the end the content analysis will systematically quantifies the posed question supporting the case.
In identifying some the foreseeable issues and incongruities between people’s narratives and those that will arise in the work of coding, consistency is the key (Weber, 1990). The systematic method requires sufficient amount of research resources be allocated to the process, it is laborious and toilsome, even with the support of modern technology (Loveland, 2006). However these issues can be worked out in a way that preserves the integrity of the interviewers and the interviewees with consistency. It is imperative that the researcher commit to the process in order to strictly adhere to the proper analytic criteria.
The interpretative approach will allow the researchers to target the activities transcribed in the interviews (Berg & Lune, 2012). This process develops rules that allow researchers to categorize and code the same data, in the same way, at different periods of time, producing reliability. This is essential to the success off content analysis (Weber, 1990). This method can be used as a tool to verify and/or substantiate the consistency of the process.