Philosophy of Mainstream-Inclusion Education Special Education: Exceptional Children in the Classroom Mainstreaming- Inclusion Mariella Vasconcelos EEX 3010 Special Education: Exceptional Children in the Classroom Philosophy of Mainstreaming- Inclusion Education Abstract Instructional practice designed to be effective in the mainstream-inclusion classroom environment must be one that is readily adaptable yet one that is sensible in its’ application in this unique and exceptional classroom setting.
Although there are complications and difficulties inherent in teaching in this environment the ultimate rewards, as well as the daily ones are motivational and inspirational to the educator who strives toward excellent instructional provision. The philosophy of the educator in this type of classroom must be able to ‘tuck and roll’ if you will as they must be able to think on their feet and adapt quickly and often to the needs of the individual student.
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This work takes a close look at instructional and behavioral strategies, including a personal opinion on collaborative and consultative teaching and a few varying philosophies and what critics of the mainstream-inclusion environment have stated. Special Education: Exceptional Children in the Classroom Philosophy of Mainstreaming- Inclusion Education Objective
The objective of this work is the research the area of inclusion/mainstreaming, and collaborative and consultative teaching to back up a personal philosophy with references from the field of education along with behavioral management strategies that would be optimally employed with exceptional children in the classroom. Introduction Mainstreaming or Inclusion is an educational practice places the special needs students in regular classrooms with their peers “to the maximum appropriate extent”.
Mainstreaming or Inclusion has been an educational practice that has been the source of much conflict within schools and for parents of handicapped students. Stated at the USI Website is: “Inclusive education means that all students in their school, regardless of their strengths or weaknesses in any area become part of the school community. “ . Those who are for inclusion claim that segregated programs are detrimental to students and do not meet the original goals for special education.
Recent meta-analyses show a small to moderate beneficial effect of inclusion education on the academic and social outcome of special needs children. Those who support inclusion believe that the child always should begin in the regular environment and only be removed only when appropriate services cannot be provided in the regular classroom. However, for inclusion to be successful, adequate supplementary aids and support services must be present including a special education consultative teacher who should work collaboratively with a general education teacher and assists the students with their special education needs.
The consultative teacher is not the teacher of record for the core content. This teacher works solely in a consultative role by providing adjustments to the learning environment and modifications of instructional methods. Another setting that is available to students with special needs in a inclusion classroom is he collaborative teacher a certified professional teacher that collaborates (works together with) a classroom teacher to deliver the best possible education to students according to their needs.
I think no mater in what setting the student is placed the teacher should prepare students to be accepting of the special needs students by being honest about the nature of the child’s disability and/or behavior difficulty. Although inclusion seems like a great idea that should be of some form of benefit for all involved, if not handled properly it can become a very stressful situation. I. Philosophy on Inclusion/Mainstreaming Dr.
Chris Kliewer, Associate Professor of Special Education at the University of Northern Iowa states that: “Inclusion involves all kinds of practices that are ultimately practices of good teaching. What good teachers do is to think thoughtfully about children and develop ways to reach all children. Ultimately, good teaching is a relationship between two people, teacher get good results because they enter into that relationship. Inclusion is providing more options for children as ways to learn.
It’s structuring schools as community where all children can learn. But there’s no recipe for becoming an inclusive teacher or an inclusive school. It’s not a mechanized format. ”  Dr. Susan Etscheidt, Professor of Special Education at UNI has a philosophy stated as: “Inclusion is based on the belief that people/adults work in inclusive communities, work with people of different races, religions, aspirations, disabilities.
In the same vein, children of all ages should learn and grow in environments that resemble the environments that they will eventually work in. ”  Both statements are very relative to the real importance behind mainstreaming-inclusion in schools, however the statement of Lou Brown at the University of Wisconsin (Madison) gives a most cognitive statement that gives clarity to the real reason that Mainstreaming-Inclusion is so very critical and vital in schools and for what purpose Mainstreaming-Inclusion truly serves.
Consider Brown’s statement of philosophy concerning Mainstreaming/Inclusion: “The millions of non-disabled students currently enrolled in schools are future firefighters, nurses, store clerks, teachers, job coaches, legislators, secretaries, physicians, school board members, employers, voters, doctors, lawyers, budget determiners, policy analysts, co-workers, police officers, and taxpayers. Approximately 15% of them will become parents of children with disabilities.
A larger proportion will have a friend, neighbor, or relative who is the parent of a child with a disability and many others will be paid to provide services to people with disabilities. “ II. Instructional and Behavioral Strategies in the Mainstream-Inclusion Classroom It is a certainty that the strategy or method of delivery of instruction in the classroom requires much more thought, creativity, and sensitivity than the instruction provided in a general education classroom. And just as well, great weight should be given to behavioral strategies by the educator in the classroom environment.
Problem students in the mainstream-inclusion classroom can be handled through use of the following aids: (1) Connect with the student: This assists the student in feeling more positive toward the teacher and the classroom. (2) Catch the student being good: Genuine praise goes far with anyone. (3) State directions in a clear and simple manner: Suggestions include “demonstration of directions with student following as the teacher demonstrates. (4) Assign classroom buddies : Pairing students with balancing strengths and weaknesses, or special needs with provision of need. 5) Adapt homework: Adaptation is the educator’s best aid in providing instructional education the special needs of individual students: Suggestions are to sensibly adapt. “If the students’ skills are well below the level of his classmates, give him a different assignment altogether, if writing is difficult for the student then allow assignments to be completed on computers, offer motivation with assignments designed to reflect the student’s interests or strengths. (6) Develop a system : Development a set signaling system by which the student who has difficulty to gear toward tasking self can be reminded of the task at hand. 7) Break tasking into smaller segments: Keep is sensible for the student’s management within their autonomy level. (8) Seek parental assistance as the student is more interactive with family in general and seeking their thoughts provides the opportunity to share ideas. (9) Observation and Elimination: If a behavioral problem is noted attempt to determine reasons for behavior through careful observational methods and note circumstances, when, where and perhaps if the same students are linked to the behavior.
Through observation one can affirm triggers that reinforce that behavior. Identification of underlying reasons for behavioral problems is a good step toward elimination of the problem. One having identified a behavioral issue then a modification strategy can be implemented to bring improvement to or elimination of an inappropriate behavior. Stressed are rewards either or privileges or materially based if progress is demonstrated. Paraphrased (Shore, 2005) III. Inclusion: Criticism Critics state that inclusion effectively rids teachers of standards by base to instruct students.
Those who hold to more structured classroom instructional environments do not accept the inherent validity within society of mainstreaming-inclusion methods and practices. Summary & Conclusion Instructional strategies and Behavioral strategies are important in the classroom because the ultimate goal in this instructional learning environment is primarily the education of young community members preparing them for their ultimate role within the community in their adulthood. It is clear that positioning students to experientially base their knowledge is a concise strategy and one that cannot fail them or the community in the future.
The day-to-day interactions with those who have special needs and those who do not, or seem that they do not, will prepare the next-generation adults within the community for fulfilling response, sensible, and sensitive roles in their own homes and throughout the community to the next community-levels both upward and outward lending this basis to all societal structures. Clearly, this is desirable and essential in all aspects under consideration in educational provision goals. References
Shore, Kenneth (2005) Ten Mainstreaming Strategies including Special Kids Problem Solver and Elementary Teacher’s Discipline Problem Solver. Dr. Ken Shore’s Classroom Problem Solver, Education World Online available at: http://www. ed ucationworld. co m/a_curr/shore/shore064. shtml Philosophy of Inclusion (2005) Definition of Inclusion located at: http://www. uni. edu/ coe/inclusion/philosophy/philosophy. html. Accommodating All Children in the Early Childhood Classroom (2005) Circle of Inclusion Homepage: Accommodation, Accessibility & Awareness Online available at: http://circleofinclusion. rg/english/accommodating/index. html Crawford, Donald B. Ph. D. (2005) Full Inclusion: One Reason for Opposition Online at: http://my. execpc. com/~presswis/inclus. html. Inclusion (2005) National Education Association works4me Online available at: http://www. nea. org/tips/manage/incluson. html ———————–  UNI Website Online at: (http://www. uni. edu/coe/inclusion/)  UNI Webpage Online available at: [http://www. uni. edu/coe/inclusion/philosophy/philosophy. html]  Ibid.  Ibid.