The term colonization can be defined as the process in which individuals learn the behavioral patterns that are most likely accepted and tolerated in society. This process includes the learning values in which children are taught and they develop the social values of their parents or guardians just by observing them. Colonization occurs from the birth of the individual and continues throughout their life. Colonization is classified as one of the most important process in the family. Of all the major sociological perspectives, symbolic interaction ism as probably developed the most detailed theory of colonization, Hardball’s, Holbrook.
Sociology – Themes and Perspectives. . In the colonization process, there are several factors which may affect a child’s behavior. In relation to the term colonization, there are some sociologists who argue the theme “nature versus nurture”. Culture, religion, education, gender roles and the environment the individual is brought up in all contributes to the process of Colonization. Some sociologists believe that behavioral patterns stem from the colonization process. Philosopher, John Locke, has his view on colonization. He believes that humans acquire majority of their behavioral patterns from nurture.
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He further proposed that humans develop only from environmental issues. However symbolic interactions, Handel, disagrees to this theory. Handel viewed colonization from perspectives, colonization agents and the child who is being socialized. In his first standpoint, he stated that the colonization agents would be the parents and teachers. It also States that it’s the duty of the colonization agents to prepare a child for membership in society. For example, if a parent fails to send their child to school to gain education, they would be prosecuted.
In his second perspective, he states that parents and teachers are not the only groups influence. He emphasizes that they are strongly influenced by the peer group through social interaction. He also outlined that children of a peer group participates in rule- making rather than just having to follow those that were taught to them. Handel (2006) observes that, at birth, an infant is not able to take part in society by cooperating with others. The two reasons he states, that nutrients to this are the fact that the infant is physically immature and also, uncivilized.
Handel also believes that colonization involves conflict whereas functionalist, T. Parsons does not agree. T. Parsons is probably the most important functionalist theorist of colonization. Parsons believe that through the colonization process, the individual is able to internalize society’s values and these values then becomes a part of their personality. Through colonization, individuals are able to take on aspects Of society’s culture, their behavior becomes largely eradicable and they contribute to the maintenance of social order.
The family is seen as the most important agent in the colonization process, so it is classified as a primary group. However, Professor Alvin Shoulder believes that T. Parsons underestimated the amount of conflict that can occur in the process of colonization. Another sociologist, Gary Fine believes that Parsons took an adults approach to colonization. The functionalist sees the colonization process as an entirely positive process. The Marxist agree that colonization can be an effective way f producing conformity but they don’t believe that the process benefits society as a whole.
According to Marxist, David Cooper, the family is an ideological conditioning device’ which conditions children to accept their own exploitation. He argues that the family specializes in the formation of roles for its members rather than having a layout of conditions for the free assumption of identity. ‘ He believes that the process confines behavior within narrow limits and restrict self development. A study conducted by Bowels and Giants [1 976] had a similar approach to the colonization process. The study was based on the schooling in the United States.
These Marxist argued that the schools hidden curriculum socializes children to be prepared to Obey, to see inequality legitimate in society and to be motivated by external rewards, such as a sticker for the completion of assignments. The feminists view on colonization is similar to that of the Marxist. Different feminists have different views of importance on the process of colonization. Liberal feminists emphasizes mostly on colonization itself whereas, feminist writers highlight the way in which the colonization process contributes to the creation of inequality teen men and women.
Ann Oakley  argues that there are distinct gender roles for men and women in society which are derived from culture rather than biology. Even though gender roles vary from society to society, all societies still maintain male dominance and female subservience. These roles are taught to the child during the colonization process, which shapes the behavior of adults. A claim made by Oakley is that processes such as the manipulation of children’s self image by the parents and the conciliation of the children towards different objects ND activities, contributes to the differences in the behavior of males and females.
Sociologists G. Lobar [1 974] and L. Best , claims that sex- role colonization continues in school through the stereotypical portrayal of girls and boys in reading schemes. Some feminists highlighted that the influence of the media in perpetuating gender inequalities through stereotypical portrayal of males and females. These views of feminists have exercised strong influence in sociology and have led to changes in the roles of parents, school and the mass media where stereotypes have )en challenged.