Social Psychology Tutorial Letter Assignment

Social Psychology Tutorial Letter Assignment Words: 1962

The bona fide pipeline is a technique that uses priming to measure implicit racial attitudes. Question 4 Alternative 1 is correct as it suggest that people who belong to different social groups come to view themselves as members of a single social entity, thus their attitudes towards each other become more positive. Question 5 Alternative 2 is correct. Studies suggest that anxious and frightened people often prefers to interact with other frightened anxious people. Question 6 Alternative 2 is correct. See definition of repeated exposure in the text. Questions Alternative 3 is correct.

See definition of social comparison theory in the text book. Question 8 Alternative 1 is correct. See definition of dismissing attachment style in the ext book. Question 9 Alternative 1 is correct. A person’s attachment style is based on the degree of security an individual feels in interpersonal relationships. Question 10 Alternative 4 is correct because the third condition that helps minorities to influence majorities is the Structure Of the general social context in which a minority group operates. Question 11 Alternative 1 is correct. See explanation of social validation in the text. Question 12 Alternative 1 is correct.

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This is the second mechanism which involved goals and objectives we wish to achieve. Question 13 Alternative 4 is correct. This is another factor which explains why destructive obedience occurs. 3 Question 14 Alternative 2 is correct. See definition of Kin theory in the text book. Question 15 Alternative 4 is correct. An example cited is that given a choice between a female relative young enough to reproduce and a female relative past menopause, help would go to the younger individual. Question 16 Alternative 3 is correct. Refer to the understanding of bystander effect in the text book. Question 1 7 Alternative 1 is the correct.

Those who were told they will have rich future social life gave much more than those told they will be probable excluded. Question 18 Alternative 4 is correct. This stems from Fraud’s explanation that human aggression can be attributed to biological factors and our basic nature as species. Question 19 Alternative 4 is correct. See definition of social learning theory in the text. Question 20 Alternative 1 is correct. See one of the sweeping hypotheses of Frustration- aggression hypothesis in the text. Question 21 Alternative 4 is correct. See definition of excitation transfer theory. Question 22 Alternative 4 is correct.

Type B personality refers to people who are not highly competitive, who are more relaxed and not always fighting the clock, and who goes remain calm even in the face of strong provocation. Question 23 Alternative 4 is correct. Bullying can be addressed when it get considerable amount of attention from all parties e. G. Teachers, parents, students, prisoners, guards, fellow employees, and supervisors. Question 24 Alternative 4 is correct. It appears that venting activities such as watching, reading about, or imagining aggressive actions, such as punching a punch bag, are more likely to increase subsequent aggression than to reduce it.

Question 25 Alternative 1 is correct. See definition of common-bond groups in the text. Question 26 Alternative 1 is correct. Different people performed different tasks and were expected to accomplish different things for the group. This means playing different roles within the group. 4 Question 27 Alternative 1 is correct. Studies on social facilitation suggest that the presence of others can affect our performance. Question 28 Alternative 1 is correct. See explanation of subordinate goals in the text book. Question 29 Alternative 2 is correct. See definition Of distributive justice in the text book.

Question 30 Alternative 2 is correct. See definition of group popularization in the text book. 2. Self-evaluation Assignment Define and give your own example of the self-serving bias and briefly discuss the reasons why it occurs. Refer to South African research. The self-serving bias refers to our tendency to attribute our positive outcomes to internal but our failures to external factors. For example, if I pass my Social Psychology exam am likely to attribute it to my intelligence. However, if I fail the exam I am likely to blame some external factor such as a noisy exam hall, problems at home, or an incomprehensible textbook.

The cognitive explanation states we expect to succeed and when we do we attribute it to internal factors and when we do not succeed we blame external factors. The motivational explanation suggests that we wish to protect and enhance our self-esteem as well as to look good to others. Moore (2000) found that Unison students, on average, made internal attributions for their previous achievement. This finding provides evidence for the self-serving bias However, they were inclined to attribute past failure to lack of effort (which is internal).

This suggests a self-abusing bias. However, it may be ‘protective’ in that one’s perception of ability is kept intact. Question 2 How effective are fear appeals in persuasive messages? Refer to relevant research. It appears reasonable to think that fear appeals may be effective in inducing attitude change. However, it appears that the issue is a rather complicated one. If the message is so fear arousing that it threatens people, they tend to react defensively by arguing against the threat or by dismissing its applicability to the self.

More moderate levels of fear are more effective, but then only when it is paired with specific information about how to reduce the fear and methods of behavioral change that allow the negative consequences to be avoided. An additional issue concerns the question as to whether health messages are more effective when they are framed in a positive manner (in terms of the potential benefits of a particular action) or a negative manner (in terms of the negative consequences if you do not take the action).

Brooder’s research suggests that when serious symptoms could result as a consequence of our healthy related behavior, a positive message is more effective in inducing attitude change. If we think that only trivial symptoms might occur, a negative message is more effective. Question 3 Discuss stereotypes as a cognitive source of prejudice in detail. Concentrate on why people form and use stereotypes and how stereotypes operate. Use examples discussed in the South African Supplement to Social Psychology where appropriate. Stereotypes are beliefs about social groups in terms of the traits or characteristics that they are assumed to share.

The main reason why people form stereotypes is because they function as convenient schemas and as such activate heuristic information processing, save us cognitive effort, and might serve different motivational purposes. Stereotypes suggest that members of any particular group possess certain happily traits and once these schemas are activated, the traits come to mind automatically. Information relevant to a stereotype is processed faster; we usually pay attention to information consistent with the stereotype; and, we refute, or subtly change, inconsistent information to make it fit with the stereotype.

Some researchers came to the conclusion that stereotypes can be seen as inferential prisons. Once they are formed, they shape our perceptions so that new information is seen as confirming our stereotypes. Even when we encounter someone from a particular group who does not fit the stereotype e have, we place the person in a subtype rather than changing our stereotype about the group. South African research such as the one by Villain indicates that some groups are seen in largely positive terms by other groups while others are seen negatively.

Later research by Merchant showed that these stereotypical viewpoints by South Africans are widespread. Low-Potteries, Chamfer and Boy developed a generally effective stereotype reduction workshop. Question Thirty-eight people witnessed the murder of Kitty Geneses, but not one of them tried to help directly or indirectly – by calling the police. According to our knowledge of variables that influence proboscis behavior in emergencies, explain the reactions of the bystanders, using the five essential steps in the decision making process. Give a South African perspective.

Step 1: Noticing the emergency: There is a possibility that some of the bystanders who were around when Kitty was murdered, did not even notice what was happening. With reference to the Sweet teenager, bystanders might not have been aware that she was kidnapped and being raped. Step 2: Interpreting an emergency as an emergency: The fear of being humiliated or misinterpreting a situation lead people to not react promptly. There were thirty eight people who witnessed the murder and none of them did anything to help and this tendency to do nothing is based on what is called pluralistic ignorance where people rely on what others are doing.

People in the community where the Sweet teenager stays did not do anything to support or protect her. Step 3: Assuming responsibility: If people feel that it is not their responsibility to help, they do not take any action of trying to help. In both cases mentioned above the bystanders might have felt that it is the responsibility of the police to take action. None of them called the police. 6 Step 4: Knowing what to do: People are likely to help only if they know what etc do. In the case of Kitty Geneses, the bystanders could have at least called the police but they did not.

In the case of the Sweet teenager the bystanders might have decided not to help because they were afraid of also being victimized by those rapists. Step 5: Deciding to help: The bystanders who witnessed Kitty’s murder decided not to help. The bystanders in the Sweet teenager’s case might have decided not to help due to the potential negative consequences. The rapists were released from jail even though they were guilty. Question 5 What accounts for our ability to resist conformity? Discuss this question with reference to the factors discussed by Baron, Byrne and Brainstorm.

The first factor is our need to maintain individuality. This need appears to be a powerful one because even though we want to be like others, we do not want to be like them to the extent where we lose our personal identity. Along with the need to be liked and to be right, we still have a desire for individuation, for being distinguishable from others in some respects. Being exactly like someone else might involve giving up one’s individuality. The second factor is the desire for personal control.

People have the desire to maintain control over events in their lives. Most people want to believe that they can determine what happens to them, and yielding to social pressures sometimes runs counter to this desire. Studies show that the stronger individuals’ need for personal control, the less likely they are to yield to social pressure. The third factor is people who cannot conform. There are many people who cannot conform for physical, legal or psychological reasons. For example, people who are physically challenged.

Though they can lead rich, full lives and participate in many activities that able-bodied persons enjoy, hey cannot adhere to some social norms because of physical limitations. Explain why individuals in large crowds often do things they would not normally do. Hooliganism – for example, disorder at sport events. Effects in crowds where there is a drift towards wild, unrestrained behavior were initially termed De-individuation (when people are in large crowds they tend to lose their individuality and instead act as others do).

More formally De-individuation was a term used to indicate a psychological state characterized by reduced self-awareness and personal identity salience, roughs on by external conditions, such as being an anonymous member of a large crowd. Initial research – Zanzibar (1976) – suggests that being in a crowd makes people anonymous and therefore less responsible or accountable for their own actions, which leads to unrestrained, antisocial actions. More recent research however shows that De-individuation leads to greater normative behavior, not less.

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